Resources Added to Prevention Program Literature Reviews
New Resources Added to Immediate
Sanctions Program Literature Reviews
New Resources Added to Intermediate Sanctions Program
Resources Added to Residential Program Literature Reviews
New Resources Added to Reentry Program
(judgment) that a juvenile is responsible for the delinquency or status offense
that is charged in a petition or other charging document.
that prepare juveniles in residential placement for reentry into the community
by establishing the necessary collaborative arrangements with the community to
ensure the delivery of prescribed services and supervision.
Alternatives to detention:
provided to a juvenile offender in the community to avoid placement in a
Analysis of variance (ANOVA):
A method for analyzing
the differences in the means of two or more groups. It allows researchers to
determine if the difference between a control group and a treatment group are
attributed to the independent variable or treatment.
A pervasive pattern of
behavior that displays disregard for and violation of the rights of others,
societal mores, or the law (such as deceitfulness, irritability, consistent
irresponsibility, lack of remorse, failure to conform to social norms).
Hold time in legal custody, either at
the scene of a crime or as a result of investigations. Arrest also can be the
result of a complaint filed by a third party, an outstanding warrant, or a
revocation of probation or parole.
Evaluation or appraisal of a
candidate's suitability for placement in a specific treatment modality/setting
and the relationship to custody and supervision. In mental health, an
assessment refers to comprehensive information required for the diagnosis of a
mental health disorder. An assessment differs from a screening, which is used
to determine if an assessment is needed. (Also see definition of Screening.)
Average daily population (ADP):
Is calculated by
dividing the total number of days all placed youth spent in a program/facility
by the number of days in a specified period (e.g. sum of all days in the
program/facility for all youth placed during the year/number of days in the
programs demonstrated through research and evaluation to be effective at
preventing or intervening in juvenile delinquency. Best practice models include
program models that have been shown, through rigorous evaluation and
replication, to achieve target outcomes. Model programs can come from many valid
sources (e.g., OJJDP's Model Programs Guide, Blueprints for Violence
Prevention, SAMHSA's National Registry of Evidence-Based Programs and
Practices, OJP’s CrimeSolutions.gov, and State model program resources).
An analysis of the
relationship between two variables, such as correlations and one-way analysis
of variance (ANOVA).
Number of cases disposed per 1,000
juveniles in the population. The population base used to calculate the case
rate varies. For example, the population base for the male case rate is the
total number of male youth age 10 or older who are under the jurisdiction of
the juvenile courts.
A statistical test used to compare differences between
observed, categorical data and expected data (based on a specific hypothesis)
to determine if any difference that occurred is the same as would occur by
Acts that cause
physical and/or emotional injury to the child (not necessarily resulting in a
court finding). Types of child abuse include physical abuse, emotional abuse,
and sexual abuse.
Acts that include
abandonment, expulsion from the home, failure to seek remedial health care or
delay in seeking care, inadequate supervision, disregard for hazards in the
home, or inadequate food, clothing, or shelter (not necessarily resulting in a
Children exposed to violence (CEV):
It involves being a
direct victim of or a witness to violence, crime, abuse, or other violent
incidents in the home, school, or community. Exposure may also include being
exposed to the aftermath of a violent incident or event.
Civil rights violation:
The violation of a
right or rights belonging to a person by reason of citizenship including
especially the fundamental freedoms and privileges guaranteed by the 13th
and 14th Amendments to the Constitution and subsequent acts of
Congress including the right to legal, social, and economic equality.
Cognitive-behavioral therapy/treatment (CBT):
approach designed to help people identify and change the dysfunctional beliefs,
thoughts, and patterns of behavior that contribute to their problems. Its
underlying principle is that thoughts affect emotions, which then influence
behaviors. CBT combines two very effective kinds of psychotherapy—cognitive
therapy and behavioral therapy. Cognitive therapy concentrates on
thoughts, assumptions, and beliefs. Behavioral therapy concentrates on specific
actions and environments that either change or maintain behaviors.
A group of individuals
sharing one or more characteristics such as geographic location (e.g., a
neighborhood), culture, age, or a particular risk factor. In the Guide to
Community Preventive Services, for the purposes of evaluating whether
interventions make communities healthier, we have chosen to apply the broadest
possible use of “community.”
Community assessment center (CAC):
An integrated case
management system that provides youth with a single 24-hour centralized point
of intake and assessment to ensure the provision of appropriate and
unduplicated treatment services. CACs use a collaborative approach that leads
to more integrated and effective cross-system services for juveniles and their
families. CACs are designed to positively influence the lives of youth and
divert them from a path of serious, violent, and chronic delinquency.
A court order giving guardianship of a
juvenile to the state department of juvenile justice or corrections. The
facility in which a juvenile may be placed may be publicly or privately
operated and may range from a secure correctional placement to a non-secure or
staff-secure facility, group home, foster care, or day treatment setting.
Comparison (or control) group
: a group of
individual whose characteristics are similar to those of a treatment group.
Comparison group individuals may not receive any services, or they may receive
a different set of services, treatment, or activities as the treatment group.
Comparison groups are used in quasi-experimental designs where random
assignment is not possible or practical. In experimental designs, individuals
are placed into control groups and treatment groups through random assignment.
Continuum of care
: This includes a
system of service providers and first responders working together to provide a
smooth transition of services for children and families. The complete range of
programs and services is referred to as the continuum of care, usually
following a model from identification and referral to assessment, intervention,
The ability to
regulate the emotional consequences of stressful or potentially stressful
Any public or private
residential facility with construction fixtures or staffing models designed to
physically restrict the movements and activities of juveniles or other
individuals that is used for the placement, after adjudication and disposition,
of any juvenile who has been adjudicated as having committed an offense, or of
any other individual convicted of a criminal offense.
A statistical term
that measures the degree of the relationship between two variables. A
correlation has two components, magnitude and direction. Magnitude is a measure
of strength and ranges from 0, no correlation, to 1, perfect correlation.
Direction determines whether a correlation is positive or negative.
A type of economic
evaluation that measures both costs and benefits (i.e., negative and positive
consequences) associated with an intervention in dollar terms.
A complaint or
petition filed with the juvenile court.
The ability of service
agencies to understand the world view of clients of different cultures and
adapt practices to ensure their effectiveness.
An act committed by a
juvenile that would be criminal if committed by an adult. The juvenile court
has jurisdiction over delinquent acts. Delinquent acts include crimes against
persons, crimes against property, drug offenses, and crimes against public
A variable whose
outcome is influenced or changed by some other variable, usually the
independent variable or the treatment. It is the “effect” or outcome variable
in a cause and effect relationship.
Usually refers to the placement of a
youth in a secure facility under court authority at some point between the time
of referral to court intake and case disposition. Detention prior to case
disposition is known as pre-dispositional detention. At times there is a need
for detention after sentencing, known as post-dispositional detention. The
reasons for post-dispositional detention generally include awaiting placement,
short-term sentencing to detention, or being a danger to self or others.
pre-dispositional/post-dispositional public or private facility (local or
regional) with construction fixtures or staffing models designed to physically
restrict the movements and activities of juveniles or other individuals that is
used for the placement, after adjudication and disposition, of any juvenile who
has been adjudicated as having committed an offense, or of any other individual
convicted of a criminal offense. There are generally three types of detention
centers: local, regional, and State. Local facilities are owned and operated by
one local political jurisdiction. Regional facilities are owned and operated
jointly by more than one local political jurisdiction. These facilities are
eligible to receive youth from each member jurisdiction. State facilities are
owned and operated by a State agency. These facilities are eligible to receive
youth from designated (or all) localities within the State.
Sanction ordered or
treatment plan decided upon or initiated in a particular case by a juvenile
court. The range of options available to a court typically includes commitment
to an institution; placement in a group or foster home or other residential
facility; probation (either regular or intensive supervision); referral to an
outside agency, day treatment, or mental health program; or imposition of a
fine, community service, or restitution.
A mechanism designed to hold youth
accountable for their actions by sanctioning behavior and in some cases
securing services, but at the same time generally avoiding formal court
processing in the juvenile justice system.
Experimental design (or randomized controlled
A research design in which participants are randomly assigned to
an intervention/treatment group or a control group. Many social scientists
believe studies using random assignment lead to the highest confidence that
observed effects are the result of the program and not another variable.
The degree to which
study results generalize to populations and contexts beyond the particular ones
included in the studies themselves.
Interactions with family
members that involve physical, emotional, and psychological activities.
The degree to which a program’s core
services, components, and procedures are implemented as originally designed.
Programs replicated with a high degree of fidelity are more likely to achieve
Cases that appear on
the official court calendar in response to the filing of a petition, complaint,
or other legal instrument requesting the court to adjudicate a youth as a
delinquent, status offender, or dependent child or to waive jurisdiction and
transfer a youth to criminal court for processing as a criminal offender.
Gang (youth gang):
A youth gang is
commonly thought of as a self-formed association of peers having the following
characteristics: three or more members, generally ages 12 to 24; a gang name
and some sense of identity, generally indicated by symbols such as clothing
style, graffiti, and hand signs; some degree of permanence and organization;
and an elevated level of involvement in delinquent or criminal activity.
Services designed to
promote healthy attitudes, behaviors and lifestyles, and foster social
competence in girls. Key program elements generally address issues in the
context of relationships to peers, family, school, and community.
Broad statements (i.e., written in general
terms) that convey a program's overall intent to change, reduce, or eliminate
the problem described. Goals identify the program's intended short- and
A graduated sanctions
system is a set of integrated intervention strategies designed to operate in
unison to enhance accountability, ensure public safety, and reduce recidivism
by preventing future delinquent behavior. The term graduated sanctions implies
that the penalties for delinquent activity should move from limited
interventions to more restrictive (i.e., graduated) penalties according to the
severity and nature of the crime. In other words, youth who commit serious and
violent offenses should receive more restrictive sentences than youth who
commit less serious offenses.
A variable that
changes or influences another variable, usually the dependent variable. This is
often the treatment in experimental designs or quasi-experimental designs and
precedes the outcome variable in time. It is the “cause” in a cause and effect
The decision made by
juvenile court intake that results in a case being handled informally at the
intake level or petitioned and scheduled for an adjudicatory or waiver hearing.
Intensive supervision programs (ISPs):
nonresidential alternative that provide a high degree of control over offenders
to ensure public safety, without the additional costs associated with
confinement. ISPs have small caseloads, strict conditions of compliance, and
high levels of contact and intervention by the probation officer or caseworker.
An analysis based on
the initial treatment intent, not the treatment eventually administered. An
intent-to-treat design ensures that all study participants are followed until
the conclusion of the study, irrespective of whether the participant is still
receiving or complying with the treatment.
The degree to which
observed changes can be attributed to the program. The validity of a study
depends on both the research design and the measurement of the program
activities and outcomes. Threats to internal validity may affect the extent to
which observed effects may be attributed to a program or intervention, and can
include attrition, maturation, instrumentation, regression toward the mean,
selection bias, contamination, and history, as well as other factors.
Programs or services
that are intended to disrupt the delinquency process and prevent a youth from
penetrating further into the juvenile justice system.
Youth at or below the upper age of
original juvenile court jurisdiction, which varies depending on the State
(e.g., the age is 15 in some States, and 17 in others).
Juvenile holdover program:
Holdover programs are
staffed by community volunteers or paid staff and administered by law
enforcement, juvenile court, probation, or a nonprofit organization. Less
restrictive than formal detention, they can be located in a nonsecure or
combination secure/nonsecure setting. If a community’s detention and shelter care
facilities are too small or too crowded to house the program, it can be located
in an emergency shelter, probation office, hospital, hotel/motel, or other
setting. In more remote areas, staff can be on call. Some areas house the
program in a community assessment center.
Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention
enacted the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act (JJDPA) (P. L. No.
93-415, 42 U.S.C. § 5601 et seq.) in 1974 and reauthorized the majority of its
provisions in 2002. The JJDPA mandates that States comply with four core
protections to participate in the JJDPA's Formula Grants program. This landmark
legislation established OJJDP to support local and State efforts to prevent
delinquency and improve the juvenile justice system.
Memorandum of understanding (MOU):
agreement designed to enable all parties to facilitate the conduct of certain
efforts of mutual interest. For example, a MOU may be signed between a police
department and a school system that specifies the types of information to be
shared, states the terms of the agreement, and includes the signatures of all
parties to the agreement.
Mental health disorder:
significant behavioral or psychological syndrome characterized by the presence
of distressing symptoms, impairment of functioning, or significantly increased
risk of suffering death, pain, disability, or loss of freedom. The concept does
not include deviant behavior, disturbances that are essentially conflicts
between the individual and society, or expected and culturally sanctioned
responses to particular events.
systematic quantitative analysis of multiple studies that address a set of
related research hypotheses in order to draw general conclusions, develop
support for hypotheses, and/or produce an estimate of overall program effects.
models (or hierarchical models):
statistical method that allows researchers to estimate separately the variance
between subjects within the same setting, and the variance between settings.
For example, when evaluating a school-based program it is important to know the
variation of students within the same school as well as the variation of
students between different schools. This ensures that when programs are
evaluated, the effects are not attributed to the program when there could be
underlying differences between schools or between the students in those schools.
Research strategy and
analytic technique that involves the investigation of more than two variables
at the same time or within the same statistical analysis. For example, in a
multiple regression analysis, the effects of two or more independent variables
are assessed in terms of their impact on the dependent variable.
Systematic process to
acquire an accurate, thorough picture of a youth's strengths and areas of
vulnerability. The process is utilized to identify and prioritize treatment
goals, develop a treatment plan, determine the appropriate level of
supervision, and allocate funds and resources for services.
Acts that include abandonment,
expulsion from the home, failure to seek remedial health care or delay in
seeking care, inadequate supervision, disregard for hazards in the home, or
inadequate food, clothing, or shelter.
Refers to a research
design in which participants are not assigned to treatment and
control/comparison groups (randomly or otherwise).
Such designs do not
allow researchers to establish causal relationships between a program or
treatment and its intended outcomes. Non-experimental designs are sometimes
used when ethics or circumstances limit the ability to use a different design
or because the intent of the research is not to establish a causal
relationship. Examples of non-experimental designs include case studies,
ethnographic research, or historical analysis.
Nonpetitioned (informally handled) cases:
Cases that duly
authorized court personnel screen for adjustment without the filing of a formal
petition. Such personnel include judges, referees, probation officers, other
officers of the court, and/or an agency statutorily designated to conduct
petition screening for the juvenile court.
Are derived from the program goals and
explain how the program goals will be accomplished. Objectives are
well-defined, specific, quantifiable statements of the program's desired
results and they should include the target level of accomplishment, thereby
further defining goals and providing the means to measure program performance.
A conditional release from imprisonment
that entitles the person to serve the remainder of the sentence outside the
correctional institution as long as the terms of the release are not violated.
Performance measures/performance indicators:
Particular values used
to measure program outputs or outcomes. They represent the data/information
that will be collected at the program level to measure the specific outputs and
outcomes a program is designed to achieve. Therefore, they must be developed
for each program objective. There are two types of performance indicators:
measure the products
of a program's implementation or activities. They are generally measured in
terms of the volume of work accomplished, such as number of service s or
products delivered, staff hired, systems developed, sessions conducted,
materials developed, and policies, procedures, and/or legislation created. Examples
include number of juveniles served, number of hours of service provided to
participants, number of staff trained, number of detention beds added, number
of materials distributed, number of reports written, and number of site visits
conducted. They may also be referred to as process measures.
measure the benefits
or changes for individuals, the juvenile justice system, or the community as a
result of the program. Outcomes may be related to behavior, attitudes, skills,
knowledge, values, conditions, or other attributes. Examples are changes in the
academic performance of program participants, changes in the recidivism rate of
program participants, changes in client satisfaction level, changes in the
conditions of confinement in detention, and changes in the county-level
juvenile crime rate. There are two levels of outcomes:
• Short-term outcomes
are the first benefits
or changes that participants or the system experience and are the ones most
closely related to and influenced by the program's outputs. They should occur
during the program or by the program's end. For direct service programs, they
generally include changes in recipients' awareness, knowledge, and attitudes. For
programs designed to change the juvenile justice system, they include changes
to the juvenile justice system that occur during or by the end of the program.
• Long-term outcomes
are the ultimate
outcomes desired for participants, recipients, the juvenile justice system, or
the community. They are changes in practice, policy, decision-making, or
behavior that result from participants' or service recipients' new awareness,
knowledge, attitudes, or skills or changes in the juvenile justice system. They
generally occur within 6 months to 1 year after the program ends. They should
relate back to the program's goals (e.g., reducing delinquency).
A proposal by the
juvenile justice system and other youth-serving agencies to establish a
permanent placement for youth in foster care. The goal of the permanency plan
is to expeditiously secure a safe, permanent placement for every maltreated
child, either by making it possible for children to return to their own
families or by finding safe adoptive homes for them.
A document filed in
juvenile court alleging that a juvenile is a delinquent and asking that the
court assume jurisdiction over the juvenile or asking that an alleged
delinquent be waived to criminal court for prosecution as an adult.
Petitioned (formally handled) cases:
Cases that appear on
the official court calendar in response to the filing of a petition or other
legal instrument requesting the court to adjudicate the youth delinquent, or
waive the youth to criminal court for processing as an adult.
The period following
the imposition of a sanction ordered or treatment plan decided upon or
initiated in a particular case by a juvenile court.
The period after the
filing of a charge and prior to a sanction ordered or treatment plan decided
upon or initiated in a particular case by a juvenile court.
Refers to the total number of people
with a disease or condition in a given population at a specific time and is
often used as an estimate of how common a condition is within a population.
Efforts that support youth who are
"at-risk" of becoming involved in delinquent behavior and help
prevent a juvenile from entering the juvenile justice system as a delinquent.
Prevention includes arbitration, diversionary or mediation programs, and
community service work or other treatment available subsequent to a child
committing a delinquent act.
Cases in which youth are placed on
informal/voluntary or formal/court-ordered supervision. A violation occurs when
a youth violates the terms of the probation.
The ability to
recognize a problem and identify a practicable solution (e.g., alternative solution
thinking, consequential thinking).
They include those
aspects of the individual and his or her environment that buffer or moderate
the effect of risk of a developing problem.
A research design that
resembles an experimental design, but instead participants are not randomly
assigned to treatment and control groups. Quasi-experimental designs are
generally viewed as weaker than experimental designs because threats to
validity cannot be as thoroughly minimized. This reduces the level of
confidence that observed effects may be attributed to the program and not other
Relative Rate Index (RRI):
The RRI measures the
level of disproportionate minority contact in a system by comparing the percentage
of minority youth at each stage of the juvenile justice system to the
percentage of minorities at the previous stage.
: The repeatability
and accuracy of measurement or the degree to which an instrument measures the
same thing each time it is used under the same condition with the same subjects.
A measure of recidivism that counts the
number of youth who were rearrested or seen at juvenile court (intake) for a
new delinquent offense. While there is no commonly accepted measure of
recidivism, it is generally measured at one of four access points in the
juvenile justice process: arrest, intake, adjudication, or incarceration.
The plan for how a
study’s information is gathered that includes identifying the data collection
method(s), the instrumentation used, the administration of those instruments,
and the methods to organize and analyze the data. The quality of the research
design impacts whether a causal relationship between program treatment and
outcome may be established.
Cases in which youth
are placed in a residential correctional or treatment facility, or cases in
which youth are otherwise removed from their homes and housed out of home.
Residential placements can include secure confinement, residential treatment
facilities, nonsecure confinement, group homes, foster care, shelter care, etc.
The qualities and factors that may help
an individual withstand many negative effects of adversity. These factors
include self-esteem, healthy attachment and relationships, autonomy,
environmental factors, and other factors that balance exposure to negative or
In its traditional
sense, restitution has been defined as “a monetary payment by the offender to
the victim for the harm reasonably resulting from the offense.”
The return of a child
who was placed in out of home care (i.e., foster care) by the State to the
birth parents or to the original custodian from whom the child was taken.
Conditions in the
individual or environment that can predict an increased likelihood of
developing a problem.
custody and home of parents or guardians without permission and failing to
return within a reasonable length of time.
An area located outside a metropolitan
statistical area as designated by the U.S. Bureau of the Census.
facilities to which youths who have been adjudicated delinquent are committed
for periods generally ranging from a few months to several years. Secure
correctional facilities are more likely to provide an array of treatment
interventions designed to effect behavioral change.
Activities identified by a program
through formal consultation with program staff designed to provide
accountability, public safety, competency enhancement, reparation to victims
and/or therapeutic treatment. Examples include: community service, restitution,
counseling sessions, probation visits, and course curriculum.
The ability to pause
and evaluate a situation and the consequences that may result from one's
behavior (i.e., exercise restraint) rather than rely on instinct or impulse.
The involvement of a
child in sexual activity to provide sexual gratification or financial benefit
to the perpetrator, including contact for sexual purposes, prostitution,
pornography, or other sexually exploitative activity (not necessarily resulting
in a court finding).
A comprehensive term
used to identify various types of sexual violation, including sexual abuse,
rape or sexual assault, sexual harassment, or other inappropriate sexual
A process designed to determine if
informal or formal processing is warranted. In the mental health setting,
screening refers to an initial look at a juvenile's mental health needs. This
is contrasted with an assessment to diagnose a mental health disorder, which
would occur after screening. (Also see definition of Assessment.)
Perceiving oneself as
worthy of esteem or respect.
alternative that offers residential care for youths who need short-term
placement (i.e., for 1 to 30 days) outside the home. Shelter care is used for
juveniles who require more intensive supervision than that provided by
nonresidential options and for youths who must be detained because no parent or
family member is available. Facilities are staff secure or nonsecure. Staff
monitor youths 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, and provide a full schedule of
structured educational and recreational activities.
The ability to achieve
personal goals in social interaction while simultaneously maintaining positive
relationships with others over time and across situations.
Specialized foster care:
treatment model that recruits and trains families to offer placement and
treatment for youth with a history of chronic and severe delinquency. Usually,
youths are closely supervised at home, in the community, and at school. Foster
care parents provide one-on-one mentoring and consistent discipline for rule
State Advisory Group (SAG):
A group of
individuals including professionals in juvenile justice and related fields who
serve as volunteers to monitor and supervise the funding and programming
of Formula Grants made to the States by the Office of Juvenile Justice and
Delinquency Prevention. SAGs must be composed of 15 to 33 members appointed by
the governor. One-fifth of the members must be younger than 24 years old when
appointed. Three members must have been or must be currently under the jurisdiction
of the juvenile justice system. In addition, a majority of the members
(including the chairperson) must not be full-time government employees.
A juvenile charged
with, or adjudicated for, conduct that would not, under the law of the
jurisdiction in which the offense was committed, be a crime if committed by an
adult. Status offenses include truancy, curfew violations, incorrigibility,
running away, and underage possession and/or consumption of alcohol or tobacco.
Substance use and abuse:
Use and abuse of
substances including, but not limited to, illegal drugs (e.g., heroin),
prescription and nonprescription drugs, and alcohol. Sometimes referred to as
alcohol and other drug (AOD) use and abuse.
Supervision (youth supervision):
managing or overseeing the performance or activities of a person or group. In
the context of juvenile justice, examples of supervision include probation,
youth supervision orders, youth training centers, and parole orders.
Strategies that alter
the basic procedures, policies, and rules that define how local or State-level
juvenile justice systems operate. These strategies create wide-ranging and
long-lasting modifications in policies, procedures, or laws.
A process by which the
research evidence from multiple studies on a particular topic is reviewed and
assessed using systematic methods to reduce bias in selection and inclusion of
studies. A systematic review is generally viewed as more thorough than a
non-systematic literature review, but does not necessarily involve the
quantitative statistical techniques of a meta-analysis.
problems (e.g., aggression, substance abuse) that a program is designed to modify
through appropriate interventions.
An analytic technique that
uses a sequence of data points, measured typically at successive, uniform
time intervals, to identify trends and other characteristics of the data. For
example, a time series analysis may be used to study a city’s crime rate over
time and predict future crime trends.
It may come in many
forms, but all methods have the goal of improving a situation, relieving
symptoms, managing crisis, or dealing with an issue through communication with
and attention given to the individual experiencing the issue. Treatment usually
involves a developmentally appropriate intervention or therapy.
: The subjects or program participants of
the set of services, treatment, or activities being studied or tested.
Used to examine the
usage of a specific facility relative to its stated capacity. The utilization
rate for a residential facility is calculated by summing the length of stay of
all juveniles placed in the facility during the time period and dividing that
figure by facility capacity (i.e., the number of beds multiplied by the number
of days in a specified time period). If the facility is overcrowded, the
utilization rate will be over 100 percent.
Valid court order:
An order given by a
juvenile court judge to a juvenile who was brought before the court and made
subject to an order; and who received, before the issuance of such order, the
full due process rights guaranteed to such juvenile by the Constitution of the United States.
The truthfulness of the study’s
measurement or the degree to which an instrument measures what is supposed to
A statistical measure of how far a set
of data points are dispersed from the mean or average for a population or a
sample. It is the average deviation of outcomes from the mean of outcomes for a
group. It is used as a step in determining the effect of an intervention or
treatment on a population.
Waived to criminal court:
Cases transferred to
criminal court as the result of a judicial waiver hearing in juvenile court.
Activities focused on
improving services for and protecting the rights of youth affected by the
juvenile justice system.
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