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Disproportionate Minority Contact

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OverviewTop  
Disproportionate Minority Contact (DMC) refers to the disproportionate number of minority youth who come into contact with the juvenile justice system. Section 223(a)(22) of the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act of 2002 broadened the scope of DMC from "disproportionate minority confinement" to "disproportionate minority contact," requiring an examination of potential disproportionate representation from secure detention and confinement to all decision points within the juvenile justice continuum and implementation of data-based prevention and system improvement strategies to reduce identified disproportionality. For further information, visit the DMC Web page.
ResourcesTop  
OJJDP Publication(s)
Disproportionate Minority Confinement: 1997 Update
Bulletin, September 1998. Summarizes the strategies OJJDP promotes to combat disproportionate minority confinement in juvenile facilities and minority overrepresentation at all points of the juvenile justice system. 12 pages. NCJ 170606.
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Disproportionate Minority Confinement: 2002 Update
Summary, September 2004. Describes developments in addressing disproportionate minority confinement (DMC) at the national, state, and local levels. 42 pages. NCJ 201240.
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Disproportionate Minority Confinement: A Review of the Research Literature From 1989 Through 2001
Bulletin, 2002. Examines research found in professional academic journals and edited books from 1989 to 2001 regarding disproportionate minority confinement. Available online only. 24 pages. NCJ 198428.
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Disproportionate Minority Confinement: Lessons Learned From Five States
Bulletin, December 1998. This bulletin explains OJJDP's Disproportionate Minority Confinement (DMC) initiative. 12 pages. NCJ 173420.
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Disproportionate Minority Contact
Fact Sheet: In Focus, October 2009. Provides an overview of OJJDPs efforts to reduce disproportionate minority contact (DMC). 4 pages. NCJ 228306.
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Disproportionate Minority Contact in the Juvenile Justice System: A Study of Differential Minority Arrest/Referral to Court in Three Cities
OJJDP-Sponsored, July 2007. Using information from three community studies of delinquency (Pittsburg, Rochester, and Seattle), this federally supported report examines disproportionate minority contact (DMC) and factors that might affect DMC at the police contact/court referral level. 52 pages. NCJ 219743.
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Evaluation of the Disproportionate Minority Confinement (DMC) Initiative: Arizona Final Report
OJJDP-Sponsored, May 1996. The DMC mandate of the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act requires the development and implementation of strategies to address and reduce the overrepresentation of minority youth in secure facilities. In an effort to facilitate compliance with the mandate, OJJDP sponsored demonstration projects in five pilot states. This is the final evaluation report for the Arizona project. 136 pages. NCJ 161564.
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Evaluation of the Disproportionate Minority Confinement (DMC) Initiative: Florida Final Report
OJJDP-Sponsored, May 1996. The DMC mandate of the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act requires the development and implementation of strategies to address and reduce the overrepresentation of minority youth in secure facilities. In an effort to facilitate compliance with the mandate, OJJDP sponsored demonstration projects in five pilot states. This is the final evaluation report for the Florida project. 105 pages. NCJ 161563.
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Evaluation of the Disproportionate Minority Confinement (DMC) Initiative: Iowa Final Report
OJJDP-Sponsored, May 1996. The DMC mandate of the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act requires the development and implementation of strategies to address and reduce the overrepresentation of minority youth in secure facilities. In an effort to facilitate compliance with the mandate, OJJDP sponsored demonstration projects in five pilot states. This is the final evaluation report for the Iowa project. 143 pages. NCJ 161562.
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Evaluation of the Disproportionate Minority Confinement (DMC) Initiative: North Carolina Final Report
OJJDP-Sponsored, May 1996. The DMC mandate of the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act requires the development and implementation of strategies to address and reduce the overrepresentation of minority youth in secure facilities. In an effort to facilitate compliance with the mandate, OJJDP sponsored demonstration projects in five pilot states. This is the final evaluation report for the North Carolina project. 128 pages. NCJ 161561.
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Evaluation of the Disproportionate Minority Confinement (DMC) Initiative: Oregon Final Report
OJJDP-Sponsored, May 1996. The DMC mandate of the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act requires the development and implementation of strategies to address and reduce the overrepresentation of minority youth in secure facilities. In an effort to facilitate compliance with the mandate, OJJDP sponsored demonstration projects in five pilot states. This is the final evaluation report for the Oregon project. 88 pages. NCJ 161560.
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An Impact Evaluation of Three Strategies Created To Reduce Disproportionate Minority Contact and the Detention Population
OJJDP-Sponsored, 2013. This study evaluated the effectiveness of three strategies developed by the Maricopa County (Arizona) Juvenile Probation Department to reduce disproportionate minority contact (DMC) and the number of youth placed in detention. 47 pages. NCJ 241506.
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Mathematics of Risk Classification: Changing Data into Valid Instruments for Juvenile Courts
OJJDP-Sponsored, July 2005. This report presents information to help juvenile courts develop practical risk-screening instruments for use in classifying youth as an aid in program assignment. 44 pages. NCJ 209158.
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Model Programs Guide Literature Review: Disproportionate Minority Contact
OJJDP-Sponsored, November 2014. This literature review provides practitioners and policymakers with relevant research and evaluations on disproportionate minority contact. 16 pages. NCJ 249700.
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OJJDP In Focus Fact Sheet: Disproportionate Minority Contact
Fact Sheet, November 2012. This fact sheet provides an overview of OJJDP's efforts to reduce disproportionate minority contact (DMC). The publication includes a description of OJJDP's DMC Reduction Model, which helps states determine whether disproportionality exists and, if it does, guides the establishment of multipronged intervention strategies to ensure equal treatment of all youth. The fact sheet also includes a summary of states' DMC-reduction activities derived from compliance plans submitted in fiscal year 2011. 4 pages. NCJ 239457
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Race as a Factor in Juvenile Arrests
Bulletin, April 2003. Analyzes statistics from the FBI's National Incident-Based Reporting System for evidence of racial bias in police arrests of juveniles for violent crimes. 8 pages. NCJ 189180.
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Reducing Disproportionate Minority Contact: Preparation at the Local Level
Bulletin, September 2009. Describes strategies that States and communities can use to reduce disproportionate minority contact with the juvenile justice system. 12 pages. NCJ 218861.
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Seven Steps to Develop and Evaluate Strategies to Reduce Disproportionate Minority Contact (DMC)
OJJDP-Sponsored, January 2005. This document describes seven steps for implementing a strategy of evaluation that will reduce disproportionate minority contact (DMC) at each stage of juvenile case processing. 42 pages. NCJ 209585.
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