U.S. Department of Justice, Office Of Justice Programs, Innovation - Partnerships - Safer Neighborhoods
Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Working for Youth Justice and Safety
Multimedia Use Home
skip navigationAbout OJJDPE-NewsOJJDP resources organized topicallyFundingProgramsState representatives and organizations that administer OJJDP programsPublicationsleft navigation groupPublications SearchNCJRS LibraryTypes of PublicationsList of All PublicationsOJJDP's Statistical Briefing BookOJJDP conferences, teleconferences, and juvenile justice-related events Tools Home
   Home > Publications > Abstract

    Publication Abstract

Hybrid and Other Modern Gangs
(NCJ 189916) December 2001
OJJDP Youth Gang Series, Bulletin, 8 page(s)
Starbuck, D., Howell, J. C., Lindquist, D. J.
Describes the nature of modern youth gangs, in particular, hybrid gangs. Hybrid gang culture is characterized by mixed racial and ethnic participation within a single gang, participation in multiple gangs by a single individual, vague rules and codes of conduct for gang members, use of symbols and colors from multiple—even rival—gangs, collaboration by rival gangs in criminal activities, and the merger of smaller gangs into larger ones. Thus, hybrid gang customs are clearly distinguished from the practices of their predecessors. This Youth Gang Series Bulletin draws on survey data, research findings, and field reports to detail these critical differences, reviewing such issues as gang stereotypes and gang migration in the process.
PDF(124 KB)HTML(7.44 KB)