U.S. Department of Justice, Office Of Justice Programs, Innovation - Partnerships - Safer Neighborhoods
Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Working for Youth Justice and Safety
About DMC




OJJDP Publications

Click on the titles to access the following Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) publications related to disproportionate minority contact (DMC). The publications are listed chronologically, with the most recent appearing first.

Disproportionate Minority Contact
This fact sheet provides an overview of OJJDP's efforts to reduce disproportionate minority contact (DMC). The publication includes a description of OJJDP's DMC Reduction Model, which helps states determine whether disproportionality exists and, if it does, guides the establishment of multipronged intervention strategies to ensure equal treatment of all youth. The fact sheet also includes a summary of states' DMC-reduction activities derived from compliance plans submitted in fiscal year 2011.

Reducing Disproportionate Minority Contact: Preparation at the Local Level
Describes strategies that States and communities can use to reduce disproportionate minority contact with the juvenile justice system. This bulletin is a companion to the latest edition of OJJDP's Disproportionate Minority Contact Technical Assistance Manual. It includes useful "how to" information drawn from the manual and presents important background on the context in which local preparation takes place-media coverage and public attitudes about crime, race, and youth.

Mathematics of Risk Classification: Changing Data into Valid Instruments for Juvenile Courts
This 44-page online Report, written as part of the National Center for Juvenile Justice's OJJDP-funded National Juvenile Justice Data Analysis Project, can assist juvenile courts in developing and using risk classification instruments. It is intended to help courts classify youth into risk groups as an aid to program assignments. The Report compares statistical methods for classifying risk and offers recommendations for selecting classification procedures.

Disproportionate Minority Confinement: 2002 Update
Describes developments in addressing disproportionate minority confinement (DMC) at the national, state, and local levels. This OJJDP Summary begins with a brief review of the most recent data, followed by an outline of national efforts by OJJDP and others during the past 5 years to address the challenge of DMC. It then presents an update of state activities, including a status report on state compliance with the DMC core requirement, highlights form state DMC assessment research and intervention initiatives, and an outline of remaining challenges. The Summary concludes with a look at the implications of the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act's broadening of DMC to encompass disproportionate minority contact.

Race as a Factor in Juvenile Arrests
This OJJDP Bulletin analyzes statistics from the FBI's National Incident-Based Reporting System for evidence of racial bias in police arrests of juveniles for violent crimes. Although previous research has explored the degree to which race impacts the juvenile justice system, the results have been mixed. Some studies have found evidence of racial bias, while others have found that race is not a significant factor. This Bulletin focuses on a somewhat neglected area of research, i.e., the role that race plays in police decisionmaking. It compares arrest probabilities of white and nonwhite juveniles for violent crimes and finds no direct evidence that an offender's race affects police decisions to take juveniles into custody in such incidents.

Disproportionate Minority Confinement: A Review of the Research Literature From 1989 Through 2001
The purpose of this 2002 OJJDP Bulletin is to extend earlier analysis by examining research found in professional academic journals and edited books during the 12-year period. Conference papers or presentations are excluded from the current review, as are unpublished State studies or plans, except when portions of these may have formed the basis for a journal publication.

Juvenile Offenders in Residential Placement: 1997-1999
This OJJDP Fact Sheet presents findings from the second wave of data collection for the Census of Juveniles in Residential Placement (CJRP). The census collected individual-level data on residents who were less than 21 years old; assigned a bed in a residential facility at the end of the day on October 27, 1999; charged with an offense or court adjudicated for an offense; and placed at the facility because of the offense. The Fact Sheet reports that the 108,931 juvenile offenders who met these inclusion criteria were held in 1,136 public, 1,794 private, and 9 tribal facilities, and that the population of juvenile offenders in residential placement increased in 32 States between 1997 and 1999. The Fact Sheet includes four tables.

Race, Ethnicity, and Serious and Violent Juvenile Offending
This OJJDP Bulletin describes various data sources and notes their strengths and weaknesses for purposes of identifying racial and ethnic patterns. The Bulletin summarizes statistics on national trends in juvenile offending by race and ethnicity, discusses research findings on racial and ethnic differences among chronic offenders, and offers various explanations of the patterns observed. It also presents recommendations for understanding these patterns and discusses implications for prevention and intervention efforts. Definitions of "race" and "ethnicity" are discussed, indicating the need for consistency in data comparisons.

Minorities in the Juvenile Justice System
This National Report Series Bulletin presents information on overrepresentation of minority youth in the juvenile justice system and includes statistics on racial/ethnic makeup of juvenile offenders from arrest, court-processing, and confinement records.

Disproportionate Minority Confinement: Lessons Learned From Five States
This Bulletin explains OJJDP's DMC initiative and describes how five pilot States ( Arizona, Florida, Iowa, North Carolina, and Oregon) assessed the extent to which minority juveniles were disproportionately confined by their juvenile justice systems, designed comprehensive DMC strategies, and implemented interventions to address identified problems.

Evaluations of these States' DMC initiatives are also available.

Disproportionate Minority Confinement: 1997 Update
This Bulletin summarizes the strategies OJJDP promotes to combat DMC in juvenile facilities and minority overrepresentation at all points of the juvenile justice system and examines Pennsylvania's multiyear, systematic, and data-driven effort to reduce DMC.

Minorities and the Juvenile Justice System
This Research Summary reports on a 15-month research project that reviewed previous literature on DMC, identified existing programs and policies that may have dealt with differential processing of minority youth, and examined methodological problems associated with previous work in this area.

Disproportionate Minority Confinement
This Fact Sheet presents statistics on the extent of DMC in the juvenile justice system and outlines a response to the problem.

Other Publications

Seven Steps to Develop and Evaluate Strategies to Reduce Disproportionate Minority Contact (DMC)
The purpose of this Juvenile Justice Evaluation Center Guidebook Series guidebook is twofold: (1) to help program administrators and juvenile justice personnel select the most effective ways to reduce DMC through performance measurement and evaluation, and (2) to discuss issues specific to DMC to consider when conducting an evaluation of an initiative or program.

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