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Arts and At-Risk Youth Program

The arts-whether they be during or after school-provide opportunities for youth from all backgrounds to do something positive . . . with their talents and their time.

-Janet Reno, Attorney General (Americans for the Arts, 1998)

Purpose

To develop and implement a pilot demonstration program in the arts that addresses the need for youth at risk of delinquency and economically disadvantaged youth to have an innovative development program that integrates work and play in the nonschool hours.

Background

Juvenile Offenders and Victims: 1997 Update on Violence, an Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) report, included information showing the need to provide afterschool programs to address the problem of crime and delinquency after school. The report states that ". . . data from the FBI's National Incident-Based Reporting System show that 1 in 5 violent crimes committed by juveniles occur in the four hours following the end of the school day (i.e., between 2 p.m. and 6 p.m.)" (Sickmund, Snyder, and Poe-Yamagata, 1997, p. 26.)

In the report of the Carnegie Foundation's Task Force on Youth Development and Community Programs, A Matter of Time: Risk and Opportunity in the Nonschool Hours (1992), the problem of juvenile delinquency and crime during afterschool or nonschool hours is clearly framed. The report describes unstructured free time during nonschool hours as a threat to the safety and security of many adolescents who live in urban and rural neighborhoods. The report states that youth are influenced by these threats (or risk factors) in multiple ways:

Some injure their health by using tobacco, alcohol, and other drugs. Some engage in premature, unprotected sexual activity, which the presence of AIDS now renders deadly. Some commit acts of crime or live in neighborhoods where fear of violence pervades their daily lives. Although all adolescents face at least some of these hazards, those who live in urban and rural poverty areas face a higher level of risk. These outcomes can be reversed, if Americans decide to create communities that . . . provide opportunities [programs with protective factors] for them during the nonschool hours. (pp. 9-10)

This solicitation is designed to address the need for healthy, challenging, and attractive programs for youth at risk of delinquency and other problem behaviors during the nonschool hours (afterschool and during the summer months) to help transform their free time from a threat to their safety and security into opportunities to participate in enriching programs (Mortimer, 1994).

Research confirms the existence of certain risk factors that increase the chances of youth developing behavior problems that may lead to delinquency, crime, and violence (Hawkins and Catalano, 1993; Loeber and Farrington, 1998). Risk factors can be identified in four general areas: (1) community (e.g., availability of drugs, firearms, media portrayals of violence, transitions and mobility, community disorganization, extreme economic deprivation); (2) family (e.g., family history of problem behaviors, family management problems, favorable parental attitudes toward and involvement in criminal behavior); (3) school (e.g., early and persistent antisocial behavior, academic failure in elementary school, lack of commitment to school); and (4) individual and peer risk factors (e.g., alienation, rebelliousness, lack of bonding to society, friends who engage in problem behaviors, and factors that have a biological or physiological foundation).

Studies indicate that many problems can be prevented if these risk factors are identified and program strategies are designed to address them. Similarly, protective factors can also buffer youth from negative outcomes by minimizing risk or by developing resiliency to risk. Identifying and building on an individual's protective factors can also be an effective prevention strategy. Examples of protective factors include individual characteristics such as temperament, healthy beliefs and clear standards, and bonding (Hawkins and Catalano, 1993; Howell, 1995).

To help determine if arts education programs benefit youth in the nonschool hours, Heath and Roach (1998) conducted a 10-year study to answer this question: What happens in learning environments outside of schools that attract young people to sustained participation, performance, and productions of high quality? Over a decade, approximately 30,000 young people in 120 youth-based organizations were sampled in 34 regions of the country. The research included 300 broad-based case studies of youth that extended for at least 3 years and 60 detailed case studies. The findings present a unique way of looking at afterschool or nonschool activities and programs providing developmentally meaningful activities for youth. The following was a significant outcome:

For those (youth) not attending organized nonschool activities and not extensively involved in extracurricular activities at school, each week offered them only 15-20 minutes of interaction with adults in sustained conversation (at least seven minutes in duration) on a single topic that included planning. What this means is that these individuals receive almost no practice in talking through future plans, developing ideas for execution, or assessing next steps from a current situation. (pp. 2-3)

The Heath and Roach research helps to confirm that arts programs encourage discussion and dialog between teachers and students regardless of age. Findings from the study show that ". . . the strong benefit that young students receive from the instruction and interaction of arts education programs is the promotion of natural language patterns that seek information, opinion, reflection, and critical comments." For at-risk youth, this type of opportunity to improve communication skills is invaluable because they often come from a world where positive, interactive communication is a rare commodity. In their report, Heath and Roach describe arts education programs as providing, as a matter of course, the opportunities for youth to ". . .engage in regular oral exchanges with older peers and adults around problem posing and hypothetical reasoning. These language forms emerge naturally, for they move along a group task that must be accomplished in a certain way to a high standard within a given period of time. A significant outcome of their participation in such art programs that set the stage for regular oral expression is that the youth's self-image and self-esteem increase greatly." Contact with the arts offers a positive stimulus and can interrupt the drift into a negative lifestyle.

OJJDP, the Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA), and other Federal partners-the National Endowment for the Arts (NEA), the Safe and Drug-Free Schools Program (SDFSP) of the U.S. Department of Education, and the Employment and Training Administration (ETA) of the U.S. Department of Labor-are responding to reports of the need for healthy programs during nonschool hours for youth at risk of delinquency and other problem behaviors and the growing body of research findings on the effectiveness of the arts programs to positively impact this population of youth by asking applicants to:

Develop and implement a multicomponent arts program for youth at risk of delinquency and other problem behaviors (e.g., substance abuse, teen pregnancy, truancy, and dropping out of school) and economically disadvantaged youth that includes (1) training in preemployment skills, interpersonal communication skills, conflict resolution education during afterschool hours and the summer months and (2) arrangements during the summer for a job or paid internship for the youth.

The multicomponent arts program provides at-risk youth and their families with numerous opportunities to build skills, enhance protective factors, and form community partnerships that help to prevent delinquency and violence while making a positive impact not just in the youth and their families, but also in their communities (Costello, 1995; Weitz, 1996).

Overall, this program intends to help replace risk factors with protective factors that enhance youth development while fostering interpersonal communication and critical thinking skills that help to ensure future success for the target population. Through this program, youth are given the chance to envision future opportunities and are provided with experiences, training, and skills to turn these opportunities into reality. This program will help to promote a climate that allows for the development of personal goals and high expectations, respect for self and others, personal accountability for one's own actions, well-earned pride in accomplishments, a strong work ethic, and an understanding of how academic success can lead to expanded career options. Further, this program will work to provide numerous opportunities for parental involvement and linkages to community resources that will help to create strong bonds and/or strengthen existing bonds for youth at risk of delinquency and increase the number of positive role models in their lives.

Goal

To prevent and reduce the incidence of juvenile delinquency, crime, and other problem behaviors (e.g., substance abuse, teen pregnancy, truancy, and dropping out of school) in at-risk youth 14 to 17 years old during afterschool hours and in the summer months by providing a multicomponentarts program that includes life skills training, the link between art and employment, and practical experiences in the workforce that will develop and/or strengthen the positive bonds of youth to their families, schools, and communities.

Objectives

The objectives of this program are to:

Bullet Develop and implement a multicomponent arts program for at-risk youth during afterschool hours and in the summer months that includes learning in the arts, occupations in the arts, and training and practical experiences in preemployment skills, interpersonal communication skills, and conflict resolution education and that allows them to build on existing strengths and develop new skills.
Bullet Promote youth "ownership" of the program by allowing the target population to provide suggestions for experiences and training that they feel would enhance their participation and success in the multicomponent arts program.
Bullet Provide an outline of youth membership in the arts program that includes clear, simple rules and/or guidelines for all its components; demonstrate how youth involvement will be provided in the design process and final outcome of these rules/guidelines to help ensure program success.
Bullet In consultation with the applicant's local Private Industry Council or Workforce Development Board, arrange jobs or paid internships during the summer months for the target population of youth at risk of delinquency and economically disadvantaged youth after discussions with them on specific areas of interest that allow them to practice and develop their cognitive, linguistic, social, and citizenship skills and abilities. Jobs or internships should be in technical occupations within the arts (e.g., sound or lighting, computer graphics, set design, etc.), in other businesses, or in community-based organizations.
Bullet Design jointly with the target population monitoring and reporting systems that track the youth's progress (e.g., maintain portfolios-collections of youth's work that illustrate skills and knowledge gained) and that are completed by both the youth and their supervisors on a regular basis.
Bullet Develop and/or strengthen the positive bonds of the target population of youth at risk of delinquency to their families, schools, and communities.
Bullet Provide and promote within the program design coordinated, collaborative prevention efforts that work to decrease risk factors while increasing protective factors for the target population of at-risk youth.
Bullet Develop and implement a process evaluation and conduct pretest and posttest measures of program outcomes to help determine program success and lessons learned.
Bullet Create a program guide that includes a step-by-step outline of the approaches and strategies used in the development and implementation of the multicomponent arts program, including the development of information for job training and other program operators to take advantage of the numerous skilled, "behind the scenes" areas associated with the performing and visual arts.

Program Strategy

OJJDP, in partnership with BJA, NEA, SDFSP, and ETA, is funding a national pilot demonstration program to support a multicomponent arts program. The Federal partnership will support two pilot demonstration programs for youth ages 14 to 17 years of age who are at risk of delinquency and other problem behaviors and/or economically disadvantaged youth that include six core components: (1) learning activities conducted by arts organizations or artists that require a high level of interactive involvement of the youth in activities designed to increase their understanding of or skills in the arts; (2) adult mentoring1 through jobs or internship relationships in arts, cultural and community-based organizations, and businesses that provide summer jobs or paid internships for youth; (3) preemployment training and skills development; (4) training in interpersonal communication skills; (5) training in conflict resolution education; and (6) related work experiences for youth, consistent with child labor laws. This strategy seeks to give youth myriad learning experiences, trainings, and skills that will help them to communicate ideas, identify and deal positively with feelings and emotions, and forge connections and relationships that will better prepare them for successful lives as contributing members of society. Whenever appropriate, youth should be brought into the design of the program's activities to help promote a sense of ownership and to better address their needs and concerns for specific experiences and skills.

This initiative will demonstrate that learning experiences in the arts help youth develop discipline and problem-solving and communications skills while fostering creativity and team building that help to increase self-esteem-all important foundations for success in school, employment, and personal relationships. Conflict resolution education additionally equips youth to retain a job because it provides them with principles, strategies, and skills to peacefully handle conflicts and disagreements that may typically arise in the workplace. Summer internships and jobs provide youth with meaningful opportunities to practice their communication and conflict resolution skills while gaining experience in the workforce. They also enable youth to develop relationships with adult role models within the business and art worlds and community-based organizations that may lead to careers in these and related fields. The applicant can identify program funds to pay for internships if the target community is not economically able to provide paying summer jobs to youth. The applicant would need to identify the limitations that preclude the community's support of this program component.

The continuation of the arts program over the summer months is specifically designed to address the problem that knowledge gained during the school year is often diminished or lost over the summer months when youth do not have enrichment programs to help them retain, apply, and enhance what they have learned during the school year. Through this multicomponent arts program, youth will be able to extend their knowledge base naturally over the summer months in a variety of situations that give them opportunities to use their existing knowledge while they are being presented with new knowledge to process and apply.

This program announcement is based on a collaborative effort of OJJDP and its Federal partners. In addition to the six core components, the selected demonstration programs must base program strategies on research, develop and implement a process evaluation, and create a program guide on the development and implementation of their approaches and activities. Applicants are given broad flexibility to design a program most relevant for the target population of youth 14 to 17 years of age and for the community where they live.

Applicants are encouraged to work with schools, school districts, and local education agencies (LEA's) in developing their applications.

All applicants must provide the following:

Bullet The applicant should clearly state the number of youth expected to be served in their program.
Bullet The target population should be defined, including age, gender, ethnicity, and identified risk factors.
Bullet An assessment of the risk and protective factors should describe factors at the community, family, school, individual, and peer levels that relate specifically to this solicitation and the target population of youth.
Bullet A comprehensive program strategy designed to reduce risk and build protective factors through a multicomponent arts program should be provided. In addition, proposed activities should fill gaps in services to the target population during afterschool hours and the summer months. Activities may identify various steps that will be taken by the applicant to address these service gaps that may lead to negative outcomes. These activities should complement and build on each other and link when possible to existing community programs and activities that contribute to positive youth development.
Bullet Description of arts activities should include information about the arts organizations and artists who will design and conduct the activities. If artists and program staff are known, their résumés may be included in the appendixes. Arts activities that will be coordinated with in school arts education programs should include information regarding the school-based program.
Bullet Program designs should emphasize hands-on learning and mentoring through jobs and apprenticeship relationships.
Bullet Applicants should provide clear evidence that proposed activities are developmentally appropriate for the target population. The program design must be culturally relevant to the population defined. Activities should be integrated into existing community programs and, when possible, community programs incorporated into the arts program. When appropriate, meaningful parental involvement should be included in the activities.
Bullet A lasting benefit to the community and the youth who participate should be identified and described (e.g., activities, outcomes, and/or products that will last beyond the program funding cycle and will contribute to the community and/or provide skills to the youth).
Bullet The applicant's plans for involvement with the job training community and its coordination with the local Private Industry Council or Workforce Development Board should be described along with the program's plans to determine appropriate summer jobs and internships, consistent with Federal and State child labor laws.

Bullet An outcome evaluation should be described that will enable the applicant to measure progress toward the program's goals and objectives and data collection mechanisms for gathering predata and postdata that include academic progress, attendance information, disciplinary reports, and other relevant indicators.
Bullet An outline of a process evaluation should be provided that includes the program's approaches, strategies, and guidelines; a profile of the target population and the community; and other descriptive information on the program.
Bullet Applicants should also demonstrate plans for sustainability of the program beyond the funding cycle either through leveraging resources or through demonstrating ability to access additional funding.

Eligibility Requirements

OJJDP invites applications from public and private nonprofit agencies, organizations, Job Training Partnership Act Service Delivery Areas, and institutions. Schools, school districts, and LEA's are eligible applicants. Joint applications from two or more eligible applicants are welcome; however, one applicant must be clearly indicated as the primary applicant (for correspondence, award, and management purposes) and the other(s) indicated as coapplicant(s).

The applicant is expected to contact the State Job Training Partnership Act liaison in their area to determine what employment opportunities may be available for the youth during the summer months that are applicable to the intent of this project. A list of the State Job Training Partnership Act liaisons, with contract information, is available by request from the Juvenile Justice Clearinghouse along with other reference items pertaining to this solicitation.

Selection Criteria

Applicants will be evaluated by a peer review panel on the extent to which they meet the criteria below.

Problem(s) To Be Addressed (15 points)

Applicants must outline the scope and nature of the need for an afterschool and summer program for the target population of youth at risk of delinquency, crime, and other problem behaviors. They should provide justification for the proposed program based on the results of an informal community assessment of available afterschool and summer programs for the target population. Applicants must provide a clear description of the risk factors related to this target population and explain how youth would benefit from participation in a multicomponent arts program during afterschool hours and the summer months. Applicants must demonstrate the involvement of appropriate stakeholders, including their Private Industry Councils or Workforce Development Boards, in the planning process and a clear understanding of the processes, supports, and steps necessary to overcome any program impediments to community integration and/or collaboration for the success of this multicomponent arts program.

Goal(s) and Objectives (10 points)

Applicants must provide succinct statements demonstrating an understanding of the goals, objectives, and tasks associated with the program that relate also to the issues identified in the Problems To Be Addressed section above. Objectives must be specific and measurable. Applicants must convey a clear understanding of the purpose, work, and expected results of the program and what youth are to gain from their summer employment experience.

Program Design (35 points)

The application must include a program design, indicating a workplan, specific procedures to be carried out, performance schedules, and products to meet the goals and objectives of the arts program that fit with the conceptualization of the problem. The multicomponent arts program must include a program of learning in the arts and technical arts-related occupations and training in interpersonal communication skills, preemployment skills, and conflict resolution education and the provision during the summer months of paid internships or jobs. Proposed plans should describe how the applicant will establish or build on existing opportunities within the community that relate to this solicitation.

The applicant must indicate how proposed plans address or will address consideration for meeting the needs of the target population that include, where appropriate, multiethnic, multicultural, and gender-specific issues related to the arts, communication skills, and employment. The description should convey a clear understanding of those considerations and issues.

The applicant should show how performance feedback and continuous improvement will be integrated into the program design in all facets of the program.

With respect to the process evaluation, the applicant is expected to describe premeasures and postmeasures that help to define the program's outcomes and successes that are linked to the goals and objectives of the program.

In addition, applicants should specifically describe coordination and collaboration efforts related to the program that can clearly demonstrate existing or future efforts through memorandums of understanding, interagency agreements, letters of commitment with specified arrangements, and other formal commitments of bona fide partnerships (e.g., inkind support, delivery of services, employment and internship opportunities). These documents may be attached as appendixes. However, collaborative relationships must be clearly described in the application.

Also, applicants must provide a plan to sustain the program beyond the funding cycle for this program.

Management and Organizational Capability (30 points)

The program's management structure and staffing must be appropriate for the successful implementation of the program. Applicants must present a workplan that identifies responsible staff, their time commitment, major tasks, and milestones.

Applicants must provide evidence of the organization's ability to conduct the program successfully. Documented organizational experience with an afterschool and/or summer multicomponent arts program and an understanding of workforce development issues are necessary. The documentation must include organizational experience with programs of this magnitude and complexity.

Key staff résumés must reflect significant experience in the delivery of an arts program with multiple components; training in interpersonal communication skills, conflict resolution education, and preemployment skills; and experience in job placement and management in the performance of the work outlined in this announcement. Program staff must also have successfully worked with at-risk youth and community programs or collaboratives. Staff and/or consultants who will deliver arts programs must have training and/or experience in the art and art-related fields they are representing.

Résumés for key staff and consultants should be attached as part of the appendixes.

Budget (10 points)

Applicants must provide a proposed budget that is complete, detailed, reasonable, allowable, and cost effective in relation to the activities to be undertaken. The applicant must show the amount and source of any cash funding commitments or inkind services and support.

Format

The narrative must not exceed 25 pages in length (excluding forms, assurances, and appendixes) and must be submitted on 8½- by 11-inch paper, double spaced on one side of the paper in a standard 12-point font. This is necessary to maintain fair and uniform standards among all applicants. If the narrative does not conform to these standards, OJJDP will deem the application ineligible for consideration.

Applicants may submit examples, such as work products, job descriptions, and brochures, to demonstrate a capacity to carry out the scope of work described in this solicitation in appendixes. Applicants are also encouraged to submit materials in the appendixes that demonstrate existing collaboration activity and/or future letters of commitment with specified inkind support and dollar amounts of contribution. All appendixes combined cannot exceed 15 pages in length.

Award Period

The program will be funded for 2 years in two 1-year budget periods. Funding of the program in the second budget period will be contingent upon the grantee's performance, availability of funds, and other criteria established at time of award.

Award Amount

Up to $210,000 is available for the initial budget period. Up to three demonstration programs will be selected for grant awards under this program; each grant will be up to $70,000.

Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance (CFDA) Number

For this program, the CFDA number, which is required on Standard Form 424, Application for Federal Assistance, is 16.541. This form is included in OJJDP's Application Kit, which can be obtained by calling the Juvenile Justice Clearinghouse at 800-638-8736 or sending an e-mail request to puborder@ncjrs.org. The Application Kit is also available online. (See the Introduction for more contact information.)

Coordination of Federal Efforts

To encourage better coordination among Federal agencies in addressing State and local needs, the U.S. Department of Justice is requesting applicants to provide information on the following: (1) active Federal grant award(s) supporting this or related efforts, including awards from the U.S. Department of Justice; (2) any pending application(s) for Federal funds for this or related efforts; and (3) plans for coordinating any funds described in items (1) or (2) with the funding sought by this application. For each Federal award, applicants must include the program or project title, the Federal grantor agency, the amount of the award, and a brief description of its purpose.

"Related efforts" is defined for these purposes as one of the following:

Bullet Efforts for the same purpose (i.e., the proposed award would supplement, expand, complement, or continue activities funded with other Federal grants).
Bullet Another phase or component of the same program or project (e.g., to implement a planning effort funded by other Federal funds or to provide a substance abuse treatment or education component within a criminal justice project).
Bullet Services of some kind (e.g., technical assistance, research, or evaluation) to the program or project described in the application.

Delivery Instructions

All application packages should be mailed or delivered to the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, c/o Juvenile Justice Resource Center, 2277 Research Boulevard, Mail Stop 2K, Rockville, MD 20850; 301-519-5535. Note: In the lower left-hand corner of the envelope, the applicant must clearly write "Arts and At-Risk Youth Program."

Due Date

Applicants are responsible for ensuring that the original and five copies of the concept paper package are received by 5 p.m. ET on July 29, 1998.

Contact

For further information, call Eric Stansbury, Program Manager, Special Emphasis Division, 202-307-5914, or send an e-mail inquiry to stansbur@ojp.usdoj.gov.

References

Americans for the Arts: Institute for Community Development and the Arts. 1998. Arts Program for At-Risk Youth: How U.S. Communities Are Using the Arts to Rescue Their Youth and Deter Crime. Washington, DC: Americans for the Arts and the National Endowment for the Arts.

Becker, J. 1994. Mentoring High-Risk Kids. Minneapolis, MN: Johnson Institute.

Costello, Laura, ed. 1995. Part of the Solution: Creative Alternatives for Youth. Washington, DC: National Assembly of State Arts Agencies in cooperation with the National Endowment for the Arts.

Grossman, J.B., and Garry, E.M. 1997. Mentoring-A Proven Delinquency Prevention Strategy. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.

Hawkins, D., and Catalano, R. 1993. Communities That Care: Risk-Focused Prevention Using the Social Development Strategy. Seattle, WA: Development Research and Programs, Inc.

Heath, S.B., and Roach, A.A. 1998. The Arts in Nonschool Hours: Strategic Opportunities for Meeting the Educational, Civic Learning, and Job-Training Goals of America's Youth. Menlo Park, CA: Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching.

Howell, J.C., ed. 1995. Guide for Implementing the Comprehensive Strategy for Serious, Violent, and Chronic Juvenile Offenders. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.

Loeber, R., and Farrington, D.P. 1998. Serious and Violent Juvenile Offenders: Risk Factors and Successful Interventions. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.

Mortimer, A.M. 1994. Consultation on Afterschool Programs. New York, NY: Carnegie Council on Adolescent Development of the Carnegie Corporation of New York.

National Center for Injury Prevention and Control. 1993. The Prevention of Youth Violence: A Framework for Community Action. Atlanta, GA: National Center for Injury Prevention and Control.

National Commission on Children. 1993. Beyond Rhetoric: A New American Agenda for Children and Families. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Randall, E. 1997. Art Works! Prevention Programs for Youth and Communities. Washington, DC: National Endowment for the Arts and U. S. Department of Health and Human Services, Center for Substance Abuse Prevention.

Schorr, L. 1989. Within Our Reach: Breaking the Cycle of Disadvantage. New York, NY: Doubleday Press.

Sickmund, M., Snyder, H.N., and Poe-Yamagata, E. 1997. Juvenile Offenders and Victims: 1997 Update on Violence. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.

Task Force on Youth Development and Community Programs. 1992. A Matter of Time: Risk and Opportunity in the Nonschool Hours. New York, NY: Carnegie Corporation of New York and the Carnegie Council on Adolescent Development.

Tolan, P., and Guerra, N. 1994 (July). What Works in Reducing Adolescent Violence: An Empirical Review of the Field. Boulder, CO: The Center for the Study and Prevention of Violence, University of Colorado.

Weitz, J.H. 1996. Coming Up Taller: Arts and Humanities Programs for Children and Youth At Risk. Washington, DC: President's Committee on the Arts and the Humanities.

Welch, N., and Greene, A. 1995 (June). Schools, Communities, and the Arts: A Research Compendium. Tempe, AZ: Morrison Institute of Public Policy, School of Public Affairs at Arizona State University and the National Endowment for the Arts.

Wilson, B. 1997. The Quiet Revolution: Changing the Face of Arts Education. Los Angeles, CA: The Getty Education Institute for the Arts.



1"Mentoring," as used in the second component above, does not refer to a significant commitment of time and energy by an adult volunteer to a youth that is devoted to personal, academic, or career development and social, athletic, or artistic growth, as defined by Becker (1994). For this program, a mentor relationship means that adults where the youth work or intern take a special interest in providing guidance on the job about the world of work, career options available in the field, and related information. While development of a positive and healthy mentor relationship from these work and intern placements is encouraged, this is not an expected outcome of this program.


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