Endnotes

1. H. Snyder, Juvenile Arrests 1996, Bulletin, Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, November 1997.

2. E. Lotke and V. Schiraldi, An Analysis of Juvenile Homicides: Where They Occur and the Effectiveness of Court Intervention, Alexandria, VA: National Center on Institutions and Alternatives, July 16, 1996, p. 1.

3. L. Kann, C.W. Warren, W.A. Harris, J.L. Collins, K.A. Douglas, M.E. Collins, B.I. Williams, J.G. Ross, and L.J. Kolbe, "Youth risk behavior surveillance -- United States, 1993," in CDC Surveillance Summaries, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 44(SS-1):6, 1995.

4. J. Johnson, S. Farkas, and A. Bers, Getting By: What American Teenagers Really Think About Their Schools, New York, NY: Public Agenda, 1997, p. 14.

5. R. Leitman and K. Binns, The Metropolitan Life Survey of the American Teacher 1993, Violence in America's Public Schools, New York, NY: Louis Harris and Associates, Inc., 1993, p. 7.

6. L. Ansley, "It just keeps getting worse," USA WEEKEND (August 13-15):4-6, 1993.

7. R. Leitman, K. Binns, and A. Steinberg, Part 1, The Metropolitan Life Survey of the American Teacher 1996, Students Voice Their Opinions On: Violence, Social Tension and Equality Among Teens, New York, NY: Louis Harris and Associates, Inc., 1996, pp. 3-4.

8. R. Leitman, K. Binns, and A. Unni, The Metropolitan Life Survey of the American Teacher 1994, Violence in America's Public Schools: The Family Perspective, New York, NY: Louis Harris and Associates, Inc., 1994, p. 5.

9. National League of Cities, "School violence in America's cities," Youth Record 6(19):1-4, October 1994.

10. J. Smotherman, "No Bullying program addresses one of the toughest forms of childhood violence," School Safety, Westlake Village, CA: National School Safety Center (Fall):12, 1996; C. Garrity, K. Jens, W. Porter, N. Sager, and C. Short-Camilli, "Bully-proofing your school: A comprehensive approach," School Safety, Westlake Village, CA: National School Safety Center (Fall):20-23, 1996; M. Vecchi, "Children are capable of learning skills to settle disputes," School Safety, Westlake Village, CA: National School Safety Center (Fall):33-34, 1996.

11. Johnson Institute, The No-Bullying Program: Preventing Bully/Victim Violence at School, Minneapolis, MN: Johnson Institute, 1996.

12. C. Garrity, K. Jens, W. Porter, N. Sager, and C. Short-Camilli, Bully-Proofing Your School, Longmont, CO: Sopris West, 1994.

13. Committee for Children, Second Step Violence Prevention Curriculum, Seattle, WA: Committee for Children, 1987.

14. National Youth Gang Center, The 1995 National Youth Gang Survey, Program Summary, Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, October 1997.

15. National League of Cities, October 1994.

16. L. Rose, A. Gallup, and S. Elam, "The 29th Annual Phi Delta Kappa/Gallup Poll of the public's attitudes toward the public schools," Phi Delta Kappan 79(1):49, September 1997.

17. Educational Communications, Inc., "It's lonely at the top," findings of the Who's Who Among American High School Students' 27th Annual Survey of High Achievers, press release, Lake Forest, IL, November 13, 1996.

18. C.R. Huff, ed., Gangs in America, Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications, 1990, p. 15.

19. S.W. Donohue, "Working with gangs on campus," School Safety, Westlake Village, CA: National School Safety Center (Spring):4-7, 1996.

20. Educational Communications, Inc., November 13, 1996.

21. K.A. Chandler, C.D. Chapman, M.R. Rand, and B.M. Taylor, Students' Reports of School Crime: 1989 and 1995, Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement, National Center for Education Statistics, and U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics, 1998, p.11. NCJ 169607.

22. L. Kann et al., 1995.

23. S.P. Kachur, G.M. Stennies, K.E. Powell, W. Modzeleski, R.S. Stephens, R. Murphy, M. Kresnow, D. Sleet, and R. Lowry, "School-associated violent deaths in the United States, 1992-1994," Journal of the American Medical Association 275(22):1729-1733, 1996.

24. R. De La Cruz, "Path of a bullet, we all pay the price," Long Beach Press Telegram (November 10):K-1, 1996.

25. D.L. Ryan, "The face of violence," Education Week (November 15):4, 1995.

26. E.F. Imhoff, "Group offers free video on impact of gun violence," Baltimore Sun (January 21) 1997.

27. J.S. Dierke, "Principal's hotline reduces school crime," School Safety, Westlake Village, CA: National School Safety Center (Winter):11, 1996.

28. North Carolina Governor's Crime Commission, "Community policing within schools," School Safety, Westlake Village, CA: National School Safety Center (Fall): 7-9, 1995.

29. Heather Knight, "The bright, dark side of drug use by adolescents," Los Angeles Times (August 6):A-5, 1997.

30. Joseph Gfroerer, Preliminary Results from the 1996 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Office of Applied Studies, July 1997, p. 1.

31. Heather Knight, 1997.

32. Joseph Gfroerer, July 1997, p. 2.

33. University of Michigan Institute for Social Research, "Drug use among American teens shows some signs of leveling after a long rise," press release, Ann Arbor, MI, December 18, 1997.

34. R. Leitman, K. Binns, and A. Duffett, Between Hope and Fear: Teens Speak Out on Crime and the Community, New York, NY: Louis Harris and Associates, Inc., 1995, p. 18.

35. Educational Communications, Inc., November 13, 1996.

36. R. Leitman, K. Binns, and A. Duffett, 1995, p. 17.

37. G.J. Botvin, E. Baker, L. Dusenbury, E.M. Botvin, and T. Diaz, "Long-term followup results of a randomized drug abuse prevention trial in a white middle-class population," Journal of the American Medical Association 273(14):1106-1112, 1995; G.J. Botvin, E. Baker, A.D. Filazzola, and E.M. Botvin, "A cognitive-behavioral approach to substance abuse prevention: One-year follow-up," Addictive Behaviors 15(1):47-63, 1990; G.J. Botvin, S.P. Schinke, J.A. Epstein, T. Diaz, et al., "Effectiveness of culturally focused and generic skills training approaches to alcohol and drug abuse prevention among minority adolescents: Two-year followup results," Psychology of Addictive Behaviors 9(3):183-194, 1995.

38. M.A. Pentz, "The school-community interface in comprehensive school health education," in 1996 Institute of Medicine Annual Report, Committee on Comprehensive School Health Programs, edited by S. Stansfield, Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1995; M.A. Pentz, J.H. Dwyer, D.P. MacKinnon, B.R. Flay, W.B. Hansen, E.Y. Wang, and C.A. Johnson, "A multi-community trial for primary prevention of adolescent drug abuse: Effects on drug use prevalence," Journal of the American Medical Association 261:3259-3266, 1989.

39. Drug Abuse Resistance Education (D.A.R.E.), D.A.R.E. America, P.O. Box 512090, Los Angeles, CA 90051-0090, 800-223-3273.

40. AdSmarts, Scott Newman Center, 6255 Sunset Boulevard, Suite 1906, Los Angeles, CA 90028, 800-783-6396.

41. Parents Association to Neutralize Drug and Alcohol Abuse, Inc. (PANDAA), 4111 Watkins Trail, Annandale, VA 22003-2051, 703-750-9285.

42. TREND, 8790 Manchester Road, St. Louis, MO 63144, 800-666-5124.

43. Federal Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics, America's Children: Key National Indicators of Well-Being, Washington, DC: Federal Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics, 1997, p. 38.

44. U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, The Condition of Education, Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, 1995, p. 362.

45. R. Leitman, K. Binns, and A. Duffett, 1995, pp. 11-13.

46. R. Leitman, K. Binns, and A. Duffett, 1995, p. 13.

47. National Association of School Boards of Education, Schools Without Fear: The Report of the NASBE Study Group on Violence and Its Impact on Schools and Learning, Alexandria, VA: National Association of School Boards of Education, 1994, p. 4.

48. P. Schmidt, "Rules mandate drug testing for bus drivers," Education Week (February 23):1, 1994.

49. Medaris, M.L., Campbell, E., and James, B. 1997. Sharing Information: A Guide to the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act and Participation in Juvenile Justice Programs, Program Report, Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, and U.S. Department of Education, Family Policy Compliance Office.

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Combating Fear and Restoring Safety in Schools Juvenile Justice Bulletin   ·  April 1998