Table 2: Approximate Order of Risk Factors Relevant to
the Development of Disruptive and Serious Delinquent Behavior

Prenatal/Infancy Toddler/Preschool Middle Childhood/
Early Adolescence
Early Adulthood

Risk Factors Emerging During Pregnancy and From Infancy Onward

Child Difficult temperament
Hyperactivity/impulsivity/attention problems
Low intelligence
Male gender
Neurotoxin/neurological insult
Pregnancy and delivery complications
Family Young mother
Maternal depression
Parental substance abuse/antisocial or criminal behavior
Poor parent-child communication
Poverty/low socioeconomic status
Serious marital discord


  Risk Factors Emerging From the Toddler Years Onward

Child Aggressive/disruptive behavior Lying
Risk taking and sensation seeking
Lack of guilt, lack of empathy
Family Harsh and erratic discipline practices
Maltreatment or neglect
Community Television violence


  Risk Factors Emerging From Mid-Childhood Onward

Child Stealing and general delinquency
Precocious behavior: sex and substance use
Positive attitude toward problem behavior
Victimization and exposure to violence
Family Poor parental supervision
School Poor academic achievement
Truancy Negative attitude toward school
Peer Delinquent peers/siblings
Peer rejection
Community Residence in a poor neighborhood

  Risk Factors Emerging From Mid-Adolescence Onward

Child Gun ownership
Drug dealing
Family School dropout
Peer Gang membership

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