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Juveniles in Corrections
Custody Data (1997-Present)
Q: How do residential placement rates vary by race?
A: For every 100,000 non-Hispanic black juveniles living in the U.S., 521 were in a residential placement facility on October 26, 2011 - for Hispanics the rate was 202, and for non-Hispanic whites it was 112.

State residential placement rates by race/ethnicity, 2011

State of offense Total White Minority Black Hispanic American
Indian1
Asian1

U.S. total 196 112 306 521 202 361 36
Alabama 198 122 323 365 87 *85 *45
Alaska 271 157 423 646 *49 569 *44
Arizona 130 98 156 286 141 204 *29
Arkansas 224 140 408 563 131 *210 *173
California 234 106 289 796 279 217 40

Colorado 233 157 354 1,064 236 538 83
Connecticut 75 23 168 286 121 *0 *0
Delaware 194 74 355 500 113 *0 *0
District of Columbia 629 *108 711 809 *200 *0 *0
Florida 203 161 242 532 38 *104 23

Georgia 184 71 295 377 93 *0 *9
Hawaii 75 123 64 554 *50 *0 35
Idaho 212 197 273 *359 247 660 *105
Illinois 171 92 270 433 164 957 34
Indiana 258 204 442 601 147 *430 *24

Iowa 224 163 554 945 293 845 *89
Kansas 254 190 421 999 170 314 *105
Kentucky 163 113 429 530 169 *342 *0
Louisiana 222 98 371 421 65 *81 *43
Maine 129 114 316 515 *224 *489 *143

Maryland 153 48 258 348 81 *0 *0
Massachusetts 95 40 235 327 243 *0 *28
Michigan 220 116 487 661 153 *111 *22
Minnesota 145 68 409 660 151 1,141 85
Mississippi 77 26 130 141 *32 *0 *0

Missouri 201 148 383 464 172 *271 *28
Montana 169 122 407 *501 252 515 *0
Nebraska 336 197 771 1,478 338 1,672 *68
Nevada 246 166 304 686 243 *285 66
New Hampshire 76 67 164 *372 *177 *0 *0

New Jersey 106 33 195 412 101 *298 *8
New Mexico 229 140 263 295 276 184 *0
New York 148 61 247 453 134 *140 11
North Carolina 74 29 138 190 43 107 *15
North Dakota 240 153 726 *592 *286 913 *0

Ohio 200 114 495 603 116 *185 *26
Oklahoma 141 86 230 524 98 146 *35
Oregon 281 231 403 889 358 753 108
Pennsylvania 239 99 636 904 333 *122 31
Rhode Island 180 93 366 875 208 *0 *90

South Carolina 173 90 290 338 81 *0 *0
South Dakota 492 298 1,197 710 418 1,583 *259
Tennessee 116 60 252 312 53 *164 *26
Texas 175 91 223 445 180 *64 18
Utah 200 141 406 727 392 537 205

Vermont 59 58 *73 *0 *0 *0 *0
Virginia 203 96 367 548 116 *0 24
Washington 150 109 233 429 202 455 35
West Virginia 277 232 843 712 *194 *898 *0
Wisconsin 173 70 513 980 149 482 *53
Wyoming 431 386 663 1,375 416 1,153 *0

1American Indian includes Alaskan Natives; Asian includes Pacific Islanders.
* Rate based on fewer than 10 observations.

Notes: The residential placement rate is the number of juvenile offenders in residential placement on October 26, 2011 per 100,000 juveniles age 10 through the upper age of original juvenile court jurisdiction in each State. U.S. total excludes youth in tribal facilities but includes 2,324 juvenile offenders for whom State of offense was not reported (most of these youth are in private facilities). U.S. total includes a small number of offenders (5) who committed their offense in a U.S. Territory. Minorities include blacks, Hispanics, American Indians/Alaskan Natives, Asians/Pacific Islanders, and those identified as other race.

To preserve the privacy of the juvenile residents, state cell counts have been rounded to the nearest multiple of three. Detail may not add to total because of rounding. Rates are based on rounded totals. More information on this rounding rule is available on the EZACJRP Web site.

[ Map of minority to nonminority ratio ]  [ CSV file ]

  • In all but 10 states, the residential placement rate for black juvenile offenders exceeded the rate for other race/ethnicity groups.
  • Nationally, the ratio of the placement rate for minorities to that for whites was 2.7 to 1.
  • In 31 states, the ratio between the minority-to-white placement rate was above the national average. In 17 states, the minority-to-white placement rate was more than 4 to 1.
  • In Arizona, Florida, Hawaii, Idaho, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Vermont, and Wyoming the ratio was less than 2 to 1.

Internet citation: OJJDP Statistical Briefing Book. Online. Available: http://www.ojjdp.gov/ojstatbb/corrections/qa08203.asp?qaDate=2011. Released on September 24, 2013.

Data Source: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. Census of Juveniles in Residential Placement 2011 [machine-readable data files]. Washington, D.C.: OJJDP.

 

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