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Juveniles in Corrections
Custody Data (1997-Present)
Q: How do residential placement rates vary by race?
A: For every 100,000 non-Hispanic black juveniles living in the U.S., 521 were in a residential placement facility on October 26, 2011 - for Hispanics the rate was 202, and for non-Hispanic whites it was 112.

State residential placement rates by race/ethnicity, 2011

State of offense Total White Minority Black Hispanic American
Indian1
Asian1

U.S. total 196 112 306 521 202 361 36
Alabama 198 122 322 364 87 *85 *45
Alaska 270 156 422 639 *49 568 *44
Arizona 130 98 156 287 140 203 *29
Arkansas 224 140 408 564 132 *210 *174
California 233 106 289 795 278 216 40

Colorado 234 157 355 1,063 236 534 83
Connecticut 75 23 169 287 121 *0 *0
Delaware 194 74 355 500 114 *0 *0
District of Columbia 618 *107 697 791 *198 *0 *0
Florida 203 161 243 533 38 *103 23

Georgia 184 72 296 378 93 *0 *9
Hawaii 75 123 64 557 *50 *0 35
Idaho 213 197 274 *361 247 667 *106
Illinois 171 92 270 432 164 946 34
Indiana 258 204 443 602 147 *429 *24

Iowa 225 163 558 949 294 850 *91
Kansas 255 191 423 1,003 171 314 *106
Kentucky 163 113 433 533 171 *339 *0
Louisiana 222 98 372 422 65 *81 *43
Maine 129 114 316 517 *224 *490 *142

Maryland 153 48 258 348 81 *0 *0
Massachusetts 95 40 235 328 243 *0 *28
Michigan 221 117 486 660 153 *111 *22
Minnesota 145 68 411 664 151 1,146 85
Mississippi 77 26 130 140 *31 *0 *0

Missouri 202 148 383 464 172 *269 *28
Montana 169 122 407 *504 251 518 *0
Nebraska 337 197 776 1,476 340 1,683 *70
Nevada 245 166 304 684 243 *284 66
New Hampshire 76 67 165 *372 *177 *0 *0

New Jersey 106 33 195 412 101 *298 *7
New Mexico 229 140 264 295 276 184 *0
New York 148 61 246 453 134 *140 11
North Carolina 74 29 138 190 43 107 *15
North Dakota 241 153 731 *608 *290 916 *0

Ohio 200 114 496 603 117 *185 *26
Oklahoma 141 86 231 524 99 146 *35
Oregon 281 231 403 888 359 751 108
Pennsylvania 238 98 636 903 334 *123 31
Rhode Island 180 93 366 874 208 *0 *89

South Carolina 173 90 290 337 81 *0 *0
South Dakota 492 298 1,204 716 424 1,588 *261
Tennessee 116 60 253 312 53 *163 *26
Texas 175 91 223 446 180 *64 18
Utah 200 142 406 726 392 533 204

Vermont 59 58 *73 *0 *0 *0 *0
Virginia 203 96 368 548 117 *0 24
Washington 150 109 234 430 203 455 35
West Virginia 278 232 843 715 *193 *898 *0
Wisconsin 174 70 516 981 150 487 *53
Wyoming 433 388 665 1,378 416 1,166 *0

1American Indian includes Alaskan Natives; Asian includes Pacific Islanders.
* Rate based on fewer than 10 observations.

Notes: The residential placement rate is the number of juvenile offenders in residential placement on October 26, 2011 per 100,000 juveniles age 10 through the upper age of original juvenile court jurisdiction in each State. U.S. total excludes youth in tribal facilities but includes 2,324 juvenile offenders for whom State of offense was not reported (most of these youth are in private facilities). U.S. total includes a small number of offenders (5) who committed their offense in a U.S. Territory. Minorities include blacks, Hispanics, American Indians/Alaskan Natives, Asians/Pacific Islanders, and those identified as "other race."

To preserve the privacy of the juvenile residents, state cell counts have been rounded to the nearest multiple of three. Detail may not add to total because of rounding. Rates are based on rounded totals. More information on this rounding rule is available on the EZACJRP Web site.

[ Map of minority to nonminority ratio ]  [ Excel file ]

  • In all but 10 states, the residential placement rate for black juvenile offenders exceeded the rate for other race/ethnicity groups.
  • Nationally, the ratio of the placement rate for minorities to that for whites was 2.7 to 1.
  • In 31 states, the ratio between the minority-to-white placement rate was above the national average. In 13 states, the minority-to-white placement rate was more than 4 to 1.
  • In Arizona, Florida, Hawaii, Idaho, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Vermont, and Wyoming the ratio was less than 2 to 1.

Internet citation: OJJDP Statistical Briefing Book. Online. Available: http://www.ojjdp.gov/ojstatbb/corrections/qa08203.asp?qaDate=2011. Released on September 24, 2013.

Data Source: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. Census of Juveniles in Residential Placement 2011 [machine-readable data files]. Washington, D.C.: OJJDP.

 

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