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Juveniled Justice System Structure & Process
JJDPA Core Requirements
Q: How has the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act (JJDPA) changed since it was enacted in 1974?
A: Since its enactment, the JJDPA (Pub. L. No. 93-415, 42 U.S.C. 5601 et seq.) has added two core requirements (jail removal and DMC) and established new mechanisms to fund specific areas of need such as evidence-based prevention and treatment programs.

JJDPA Timeline, 2013


1974  
  • Congress enacted the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act (JJDPA) (Pub. L. No. 93-415, 42 U.S.C. 5601 et seq.). The JJDPA provided, for the first time, a unified national program to address juvenile delinquency prevention and control within the context of the total law enforcement and criminal justice effort.
  • Mandated that participating states: remove status offenders from secure detention and correctional facilities within two years of enactment; and not place juveniles in any institutions where they would have sight or sound contact with adults convicted of criminal charges.
  • Provided funds through discretionary and block grants to States to support youth programs developed by public and private youth service agencies.
 
1977  
  • Increased and expanded requirements for deinstitutionalization of status offenders (DSO) and sight and sound separation.
  • Emphasized prevention and treatment.
  • Provided that 5% of minimum allotment be made available to State Advisory Groups (SAGs).
 
1980  
  • JJDPA reauthorized for four years.
  • Adopted valid court order exception to DSO requirement and established a jail removal requirement that provided for the removal of juveniles from adult jails and lock-ups within five years from the date of enactment.
  • Established the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) as a separate entity within the new Office of Justice Assistance, Research, and Statistics (OJARS) structure.
 
1984  
  • JJDPA reauthorized for four years.
  • Enhanced and amended jail removal requirements.
  • Amended Act to provide for new program for Missing and Exploited Children Program (Title IV).
 
1988  
  • JJDPA reauthorized for four years.
  • Added requirement to address disproportionate minority confinement (DMC) and established new (Part D) program to provide prevention and treatment programs relating to juvenile gangs, drug abuse, and drug trafficking.
 
1992  
  • JJDPA reauthorized for four years.
  • Amended DSO, jail removal, and separation requirements, and elevated DMC to a core requirement.
  • Established new programs to address gender bias, authorize funding for challenge activities, and to provide incentive grants for local delinquency prevention programs (Title V).
  • Emphasized prevention and treatment, family strengthening, graduated sanctions, and risk/need assessments.
 
2002  
  • JJDPA reauthorized for six years.
  • Broadened the scope of the DMC core requirement from "disproportionate minority confinement" to "disproportionate minority contact."
  • Consolidated seven previously independent programs into a single prevention block grant (Part C) and created a new Part D, authorizing research, training and technical assistance, and information dissemination.
  • Required states to give funding priorities of their formula and block grant allocations to evidence-based programs.
 
2008  
  • Senate took steps to update and reauthorize the Act under bill S. 3155; however, the bill was never voted on by the Senate.
 
2009  
  • Senate reintroduced the bill (S. 678) which was approved by the Senate Judiciary Committee while the House introduced corresponding legislation (H.R. 3029); however, to date, the Act has yet to be officially reauthorized.

Notes: Author's adaptation of information from http://ojjdp.gov/about/legislation.html

Developed for the State Training and Technical Assistance Center by the National Center for Juvenile Justice (NCJJ), with funding from the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice.


Internet citation: OJJDP Statistical Briefing Book. Online. Available: http://www.ojjdp.gov/ojstatbb/structure_process/qa04302.asp.

 

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