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Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Working for Youth Justice and Safety
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Disproportionate Minority Contact








Disproportionate Minority Contact (DMC) refers to the disproportionate number of minority youth who come into contact with the juvenile justice system. The Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act of 2002 broadened the scope of the DMC initiative from "disproportionate minority confinement" to "disproportionate minority contact," requiring an examination of potential disproportionate representation at all decision points within the juvenile justice continuum and implementation of data-based prevention and system improvement efforts to reduce identified disproportionality. For further information, visit the DMC Web page.
FY 2013 Disproportionate Minority Contact Community and Strategic Planning Project
OJJDP Contact(s)

Andrea Coleman
DMC Coordinator

OJJDP Publication(s)
Disproportionate Minority Confinement: 1997 Update
September 1998. This bulletin provides an overview of the status of the Federal initiative to address disproportionate minority confinement (DMC) in juvenile justice facilities and describes Pennsylvania's efforts to meet the needs of minority youth served by its juvenile justice system. 12 pages. NCJ 170606.
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Disproportionate Minority Confinement: 2002 Update
September 2004. This summary report provides an overview of recent disproportionate minority confinement (DMC)-related developments within the United States juvenile justice system by providing a brief overview of the data, followed by an outline of national efforts, and a summarization of state activities. 42 pages. NCJ 201240.
PDF(496 KB) 
Disproportionate Minority Confinement: A Review of the Research Literature From 1989 Through 2001
2002. This bulletin reviews studies of disproportionate minority confinement (DMC) of juveniles that have been published in professional academic journals and scholarly books from March 1989 through December 2001. 24 pages. NCJ 198428.
PDF(148 KB) 
Disproportionate Minority Contact
October 2009. This OJJDP In Focus article presents information on OJJDP's efforts to address the problem of disproportionate minority contact. 4 pages. NCJ 228306.
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Reducing Disproportionate Minority Contact: Preparation at the Local Level
September 2009. Describes strategies that States and communities can use to reduce disproportionate minority contact with the juvenile justice system. 12 pages. NCJ 218861.
PDF(911 KB)