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     Causes and Correlates of Delinquency
    (CCD) - Pittsburgh

Publications of the Pittsburgh Youth Development Study

Books and Book Chapters

Le Blanc, M., & Loeber, R. (in press). Developmental criminology updated. In M. Tonry (Ed.), Crime and Justice (vol. 23). Chicago: Chicago University Press.

Loeber, R. and Farrington, D. P. (Eds.) (2001). Child Delinquents: Development, Intervention and Service Needs. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Loeber, R., Farrington, D. P., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., & Van Kammen, W. B. (1998). Antisocial Behavior and Mental Health Problems: Explanatory Factors in Childhood and Adolescence. Mawhaw, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Loeber, R. (1992). Viewing emotional problems of children and adolescents from a developmental perspective. In A. Algarin, & R. M. Friedman (Eds.), 5th Annual Research Conference Proceedings on A System of Care for Children's Mental Health: Expanding the Research Base (pp. 53-60). Tampa, FL.: Research and Training Center for Children's Mental Health.

Loeber, R., DeLamatre, M., Keenan, K., & Zhang, Q. (1998). A prospective replication of developmental pathways in disruptive and delinquent behavior. In R. Cairns, L. Bergman, & J. Kagan (Eds.), Methods and models for studying the individual (pp. 185-215). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Loeber, R., & Farrington, D. P. (Eds.) (1998). Serious and Violent Juvenile Offenders: Risk Factors and Successful Interventions. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Loeber, R., & Stouthamer-Loeber, M. (1991). A survey of services for children with disruptive and delinquent behavior. In A. Algarin, & R. M. Friedman (Eds.), 4th Annual Research Conference Proceedings on A System of Care for Children's Mental Health: Expanding the Research Base (pp. 323-326). Tampa, FL.: Research and Training Center for Children's Mental Health.

Loeber, R., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., Van Kammen, W. B., & Farrington, D. P. (1989). Development of a new measure of self-reported antisocial behavior for young children: Prevalence and reliability. In M. Klein (Ed.), Cross-National Research in Self-Reported Crime and Delinquency (pp. 203-225). Boston, MA: Kluwer-Nijhoff. NCJRS 125457.

Loeber, R., & Wikström, P.-O. (1993). Individual pathways to crime in different types of neighborhood. In D. P. Farrington, R. J. Sampson & P-O. Wikström (Eds.), Integrating Individual and Ecological Aspects of Crime (pp. 169-204). Stockholm, Sweden: Liber Forlag.

Loeber, R., & Hay, D. F. (1994). Developmental approaches to aggression and conduct problems. In M. L. Rutter, & D. H. Hay (Eds.), Development through life: A handbook for clinicians (pp. 488-515). Oxford: Blackwell.

Loeber, R. & Keenan, K., (1994). The interaction between conduct disorder and its comorbid conditions: Effects of age and gender. Clinical Psychology Review, 14, 497-523.

Loeber, R., Keenan, K., Russo, M. F., Green, S. M., Lahey, B. B. & Thomas, C. (1998). Secondary data analyses for DSM-IV on the symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder. In T. Widiger, A. Frances, H. A. Pincus, R. Ross, M. B. First, W. Davis, & M. Kline (Eds.), DSM-IV Sourcebook (Vol. 4, pp. 465-490). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.

Loeber, R., & Le Blanc, M. (1990). Toward a developmental criminology. In M. Tonry and N. Morris (Eds.), Crime and Justice (Vol. 12, pp. 375-473). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Partly to be republished in M. Le Blanc and R. Loeber, Causality and the Development of Offending. In D. F. Hay and A. Angold (Eds.), in Precursors, Causes and Psychopathology. London: Wiley. 1993. OJJDP.

Loeber, R., and Stouthamer-Loeber, M. (1998). Juvenile aggression at home and at school. In D. S. Elliott, K. R. Williams, & B. Hamburg (Eds.), Violence in American schools (pp. 94-126). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Maguin, E., & Loeber, R., (1996), Academic performance and its relationship to delinquency. In S. Cramer & W. Ellis (Eds.), Learning disabilities: Lifelong Issues (pp. 235-240). Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co. NCJ 161962.

Maguin, E., & Loeber, R. (1996). Academic performance and delinquency. In M. Tonry (ed.), Crime and Justice: A review of research (Vol. 20, pp. 145-264). Chicago: University of Chicago Press. NCJRS 161962.

Moffitt, T., Caspi, A., Silva, P. A. & Stouthamer-Loeber, M. (1995). Individual differences in personality and intelligence are linked to crime: Cross-context evidence from nations, neighborhoods, genders, races, and age-cohorts. In J. Hagan (Ed.), Current perspectives on aging and the life cycle. Delinquency and disrepute in the life course: Contextual and dynamic analyses. (pp. 1-34). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.

Stouthamer-Loeber, M., & Van Kammen, W. B. (1995). Data collection and management: A practical guide. Newbury Park, CA. Sage.

Stouthamer-Loeber, M. (1993). Optimizing data quality of individual and community sources in longitudinal research. In D. P. Farrington, R. J. Sampson & P-O. Wikström (Eds.), Integrating Individual and Ecological Aspects of Crime. (pp. 259-277). Stockholm, Sweden: Liber Forlag.

Thornberry, T., Huizinga, D., & Loeber, R. (1995). The prevention of serious delinquency and violence: Implications from the Program of Research on the Causes and Correlates of Delinquency. In J.C. Howell, B. Krisberg, J. D. Hawkins, & J. J. Wilson (Eds.), Sourcebook on serious, violent and chronic juvenile offenders. (pp. 213-237). Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage. NCJ 165070.

Tolan, P. H., and Loeber, R. (1993). Antisocial behavior. In P. Tolan, & V. Cohler (Eds.), Handbook of clinical research and practice with adolescents, (pp. 307-331). New York: Wiley & Sons.

Van Kammen, W. B., Maguin, E., & Loeber, R. (1994). Initiation into drug selling and its relationship with illicit drug use and serious delinquency. In H. J. Kerner, & E. Weitekamp (Eds). Cross-National Longitudinal Research on Human Development and Criminal Behavior (pp. 229-242). Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.

Van Kammen, W.B., & Stouthamer-Loeber, M. (1997). Practical aspects of data collection and data management. In L. Bickman & D. Rog (Eds.), Handbook of applied social research methods (pp. 375-398). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Wikström, P-O. (1998). Communities and crime. In M. Tonry (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of crime and punishment (pp. 269-301). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Journal Articles

Angold, A., Erkanli, A., Loeber, R., Costello, E. J., Van Kammen, W. B., & Stouthamer-Loeber, M. (1996). Disappearing depression in a population sample of boys. Journal of Emotional & Behavioral Disorders, 4, 95-104.

Caspi, A., Block, J., & Block, J. H., Klopp, B., Lynam, D., Moffitt, T. E., & Stouthamer-Loeber, M. (1992). A "common-language" version of the California Child Q-Sort for personality assessment. Psychological Assessment, 4, 512-523.

Also published in:
M. E. Hertzig & E. A. Farber (Eds.), Annual progress in child psychiatry and child development (pp. 123-149). New York: Brunner/Mazel, 1993.

Caspi, A., Moffitt, T. E., Silva, P. A., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., Krueger, R. F., & Schmutte, P. S. (1994). Are some people crime prone? Replications of the personality-crime relationship across countries, genders, races, and methods. Criminology, 32, 163-195. NCJRS 148438.

Fabrega, H., Ulrick, R., & Loeber, R. (1996). Adolescent psychopathology as a function of informant and risk status. Journal of Nervous and Mental Diseases, 184, 27-34.

Farrington, D. P., & Loeber, R. (1999). Risk factors for delinquency over time and place. Youth Update, 17(2), 4-5.

Farrington, D. P., Loeber, R., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., van Kammen, W. B., & Schmidt, L. (1996). Self-reported delinquency and a combined delinquency seriousness scale based on boys, mothers, and teachers: Concurrent and predictive validity for african-americans and caucasians. Criminology, 34, 501-525. OJJDP.

Farrington, D., & Loeber, R. (1989). RIOC and Phi as measures of predictive efficiency and strength of association in 2 x 2 tables. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 5, 201-213.

Frick, P., Lahey, B. B., Loeber, R., Tannenbaum, L., Van Horn, Y., Christ, M. A. G., Hart, E. A., & Hanson, K. (1993). Oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder: A meta-analytic review of factor analysis and cross-validation in a clinic sample. Clinical Psychology Review, 13, 319-340.

Hartman, C. A., Hox, J., Auerbach, J. G, Erol, N., Fonseca, A. C., Mellenbergh, G. J., Novik, T. S., Oosterlaan, J., Roussos, A. C., Shalev, R. S., Zilber, N., & Sargeant, J. A. (1999), Syndrome dimensions of the Child Behavior Checklist and the Teacher Report Form: a critical empirical evaluation. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 40, 1095-1116.

Huizinga, D., Loeber, R., & Thornberry, T. (1993). Longitudinal study of delinquency, drug use, sexual activity, and pregnancy among children and youth in three cities. Public Health Reports: Journal of the U.S. Public Health Service, 108, Supplement 1, 90-96.

John, O. P., Caspi, A., Robins, R. W., Moffitt, T., & Stouthamer-Loeber, M. (1994). The "Little Five": Exploring the nomological network of the five-factor model of personality in adolescent boys. Child Development, 65, 160-178. NCJRS 153940.

Keenan, K, Loeber, R., & Green, S. M. (1999). Conduct disorder in girls: A review of the literature. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 2, 3-19.

Keenan, K., Loeber, R., Zhang, Q., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., & Van Kammen, W. B. (1995), The influence of deviant peers on the development of boys' disruptive and delinquent behavior: a temporal analysis. Development & Psychopathology, 7, 715-726.

Keltner, D., Moffitt, T. E., & Stouthamer-Loeber, M. (1995). Facial expression of emotion and psychopathology in adolescent boys. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 104, 644-652.

Krueger, R. F., Caspi, A., Moffitt, T. E., White, J., & Stouthamer-Loeber, M. (1996). Delay of gratification, personality and psychopathology: Is low self-control specific to externalizing problems? Journal of Personality, 64, 107-129.

Krueger, R. F., Caspi, A., Moffitt, T. E., White, J., & Stouthamer-Loeber, M. (1996). Delay of gratification, personality and psychopathology: Is low self-control specific to externalizing problems? Journal of Personality, 64, 107-129.

Lahey, B. B., Gordon, R. A., Loeber, R., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., & Farrington, D. P. (1999). Boys who join gangs: A prospective study of predictors of gang entry. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 27, 261-276.

Lizotte, A. J., Chard-Wierschem, D. J., Loeber, R., & Stern, S. B. (1992). A shortened Child Behavior Checklist for delinquency studies. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 8, 233-245. NCJRS 137286.

Loeber, R. DeLamatre, M., Tita, G., Cohen, J., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., & Farrington, D. P. (1999). Gun injury and mortality: The delinquent backgrounds of juvenile victims. Violence and Victims, 14, 339-352.

Loeber, R., Drinkwater, M., Yin, Y., Anderson, S. J., Schmidt, L. C., Crawford, A. (2000). Stability of family interactions from ages 6 to 18. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 28, 353-369.

Loeber, R., & Hay, D. F. (1997). Key issues in the development of aggression and violence from childhood to early adulthood. Annual Review of Psychology, 48, 371-410. OJJDP.

Loeber, R., & Keenan, K. (1995, Spring), Developmental pathways in boys' disruptive and delinquent behavior. Youth Update. Vol. 13, No. 1. A publication of the Institute for the Study of Antisocial Behavior in Youth. NCJRS 165692.

Loeber, R., Keenan, K., & Zhang, Q. (1997). Boys' experimentation and persistence in developmental pathways toward serious delinquency. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 6, 321-357. NCJRS 169595.

Loeber, R., Russo, M. F., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., & Lahey, B. B. (1994). Internalizing problems and their relation to the development of disruptive behaviors in adolescence. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 4, 615-637.

Loeber, R., & Stouthamer-Loeber (1998). The development of juvenile aggression and violence: Some common misconceptions and controversies. American Psychologist, 53, 242-259. OJJDP.

Loeber, R., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., Van Kammen, W. B., & Farrington, D. P. (1991). Initiation, escalation and desistance in juvenile offending and their correlates. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 82, 36-82. NCJRS 131769.

Loeber, R., Wung, P., Keenan, K., Giroux, B., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., Van Kammen, W. B., & Maughan, B. (1993). Developmental pathways in disruptive child behavior. Development and Psychopathology, 5, 101-132.

Loeber, R. (1990). Development and risk factors of juvenile antisocial behavior and delinquency. Clinical Psychology Review, 10, 1-41. NCJ 125367.

Loeber, R., & Farrington, D. P. (1994). Problems and solutions in longitudinal and experimental treatment studies of child psychopathology and delinquency. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 62, 887-900.

To be republished as Longitudinal approaches in epidemiological research of conduct problems. In F. C. Verhulst, H. M. Koot (Eds.), The Epidemiology of Child and Adolescent Psychopathology. Oxford: Oxford University Press, (1995).

Another version will appear in D. Stoff, J. Breiling, & J. D. Maser (Eds.), Handbook of antisocial behavior. New York: Wiley. NCJ 151834.

Loeber, R., & Stouthamer-Loeber, M. (1996). The development of offending. Criminal Justice and Behavior. 23, 12-24. NCJ 162055.

Loeber, R., & Farrington, D. P. (2000). Young children who commit crime: epidemiology, developmental origins, risk factors, early interventions, and policy implications. Development and Psychopathology, 12, 737-762.

Loeber, R., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., & White, H. R. (1999). Developmental aspects of delinquency and internalizing problems and their association with persistent juvenile substance use between ages 7 and 18. Journal of Clinical Child Psycholology, 27, 322-332.

Loeber, R., Wei, E., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., Huizinga, D., & Thornberry, T. (1999). Behavioral antecedents to serious and violent juvenile offending: Joint analyses from the Denver Youth Survey, Pittsburgh Youth Study, and the Rochester Youth Development Study. Studies in Crime and Crime Prevention, 8, 245-263.

Lynam, D. (1997). Pursuing the psychopath: Capturing the fledgling psychopath in a nomological net. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 106, 425-438. OJJDP.

Lynam, D., Moffitt, T., & Stouthamer-Loeber, M. (1993). Explaining the relation between IQ and delinquency: Class, race, test motivation, school failure, or self-control? Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 102, 187-196. NCJRS 147442.

Maguin, E., & Loeber, R. (1996). How well do ratings of academic performance by mothers and their sons correspond to grades, achievement test scores, and teachers' ratings? Journal of Behavioral Education, 6, 405-425. OJJDP.

Maguin, E., Loeber, R., & LeMahieu, P. (1993). Does the relationship between poor reading and delinquency hold for different age and ethnic groups? Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 1, 88-100.

Messer, S. C., Angold, A., Loeber, R., Costello, E. J., Van Kammen, W. B., & Stouthamer- Loeber, M. (1995), The development of a short questionnaire for use in epidemiological studies of depression in children and adolescents: factor composition and structure across development. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 5, 251-262.

Peeples, F., & Loeber, R. (1994). Do individual factors and neighborhood context explain ethnic differences in juvenile delinquency? Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 10, 141-157. NCJ 149264.

Robins, R. W., John, O. P., Caspi, A., & Moffitt, T. E., Stouthamer-Loeber, M. (1996). Resilient, overcontrolled, and undercontrolled boys: Three replicable personality types. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 157-171.

Russo, M. F., Loeber, R., Lahey, B., & Keenan, K. (1994). Oppositional defiant and conduct disorders: Validation of the DSM-III-R and an alternative option. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 23, 56-68. NCJ 156355.

Stouthamer-Loeber, M., Drinkwater, M., & Loeber, R. (1999-2000). Family functioning profiles, early onset of offending, and disadvantaged neighborhoods. International Journal of Child and Family Welfare, 4, 247-256.

Stouthamer-Loeber, M., Loeber, R., Farrington, D. P., Zhang, Q., Van Kammen, W. B., & Maguin, E. (1993). The double edge of protective and risk factors for delinquency: Interrelations and developmental patterns. Development and Psychopathology, 5, 683-701.

Stouthamer-Loeber, M., Loeber, R., Thomas, C. (1992). Caretakers seeking help for boys with disruptive and delinquent child behavior. Comprehensive Mental Health Care, 2, 159-178.

Stouthamer-Loeber, M., Loeber, R., Van Kammen, W. B., & Zhang, Q. (1995). Uninterrupted delinquent careers: The timing of parental helpseeking and juvenile court contact. Studies on Crime and Crime Prevention, 4, 236-251. NCJ 158811.

Stouthamer-Loeber, M., Van Kammen, W. B., & Loeber, R. (1992). The nuts and bolts of running a large longitudinal study. Violence and Victims, 7, 63-78. NCJ 138243.

Stouthamer-Loeber, M., & Wei, E. (1998). The precursors of young fatherhood and its effect on the delinquency career of teenage males. Journal of Adolescent Health, 22, 56-65.

Van Kammen, W. B., & Loeber, R. (1992). Drugs, delinquency & discipline. School Safety, 3, 7-10. NCJ 139482.

Van Kammen, W. B., & Loeber, R. (1994). Are fluctuations in delinquent activities related to the onset and offset of juvenile illegal drug use and drug dealing? Journal of Drug Issues, 24, 9- 24. NCJ 153130.

Van Kammen, W. B., Loeber, R., & Stouthamer-Loeber, M. (1991). Substance use and its relationship to antisocial and delinquent behavior in young boys, Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 20, 399-414. NCJ 132794.

White, J. L., Moffitt, T. E., Caspi, A., Bartusch, D. J., Needles, D. J., & Stouthamer-Loeber, M. (1994). Measuring impulsivity and examining its relationship to delinquency. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 103, 192-205. NCJ 153636.

White, H. R., Loeber, R., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., & Farrington, D. P. (1999). Developmental associations between substance use and violence. Development and Psychopathology, 11, 785-803.

Zhang, Q., Loeber, R., & Stouthamer-Loeber, M. (1997). Developmental trends of delinquency attitudes and delinquency: Replication and synthesis across time and samples. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 13, 181-216. NCJ 16781.

Wikström, P-O, & Loeber, R. (2000). Do disadvantaged neighborhoods cause well-adjusted children to become adolescent delinquents? A study of male juvenile serious offending, risk and protective factors, and neighborhood context. Criminology, 38, 1109-1142.

Unpublished Reports/Dissertations

Farrington, D. P. (in press). Predictors, causes and correlates of male youth violence. In M. Tonry & M. H. Moore (Eds.), Youth Violence (Crime and Justice, vol. 24). Chicago: Chicago University Press.

Farrington, D. P., & Loeber, R. Measures of association: The benefits of dichotimization. submitted for publication.

Farrington, D. P. & Loeber, R. (in press). Transatlantic replicability of risk factors in the development of delinquency. In P. Cohen, C. Slomkowski, and L. N. Robins (Eds.) Where and When: The Influence of History and Geography on Aspects of Psychopathology. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. OJJDP.

Loeber, R., Farrington, D. P., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., Moffitt, T. E., & Caspi, A. (in press), The development of male offending: Key Findings from the first decade of the Pittsburgh Youth Study. Studies in Crime and Crime Prevention.

Loeber, R., Farrington, D. P., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., & Van Kammen, W. B. (in press). Multiple risk factors for multi-problem boys: Co-occurrence of delinquency, substance use, attention deficit, conduct problems, physical aggression, covert behavior, depressed mood, and shy/withdrawn behavior. In R. Jessor (Ed.), New perspectives on adolescent risk behavior. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Technical Reports/Statistical Papers

Copas, J., & Loeber, R. (1990). Relative Improvement Over Chance for 2 x 2 tables. British Journal of Statistical and Mathematical Psychology, 43, 293-307. NCJ 141130 Lahey, B. B., & Loeber, R. Framework for a developmental model of Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Conduct Disorder. In D. Routh (Ed.), Disruptive behavior disorders in childhood: Essays honoring Herb C. Quay (139-180). New York, Plenum, 1994.

Lahey, B. B., McBurnett, K., Loeber, R., & Hart, E. L. (1995). Psychobiology of conduct disorder. In G. P. Sholevar (Ed.), Conduct disorders in children and adolescents: Assessments and Interventions, (pp. 27-44) Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Press.

Loeber, R. (1991). Questions and advances in the study of developmental pathways. In D. Cicchetti & S. Toth (Eds.), Rochester Symposium on Developmental Psychopathology: III. Rochester, NY: Rochester University Press.

Loeber, R., & Coie, J., Continuities and discontinuities of development, with particular emphasis on emotional and cognitive aspects of disruptive dehavior. In B. Maughan & J. Hill (Eds.), Cambridge Monographs in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry: Conduct Disorders. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Robins, R. W., John, O.P. & Caspi, A. (in press). Major dimensions of personality in early adolescence: The Big Five and beyond. In C. F. Halverson, G. A. Kohnstamm, & R. P. Martin (Eds.), The developing structure of temperament and personality from infancy to adulthood. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Bulletins, Fact Sheets, Other

Browning, K., Loeber, R. (Feb. 1999). Highlights of findings from the Pittsburgh Youth Study. OJJDP Fact Sheet, No. 95. FS9995

Huizinga, D., Loeber, R., Thornberry, & Cothern, L. (Nov. 2000). Co-occurence of Delinquency and Other Problem Behaviors. OJJDP Juvenile Justice Bulletin. NCJ 182211

Kelley, B. T., Huizinga, D., Thornberry, T. P., & Loeber, R. (1997). Epidemiology of serious violence. Juvenile Justice Bulletin, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, June, 1-11. NCJRS 165152.

Kelley, B. T., Loeber, R., Keenan, K., DeLamatre, M. (December, 1997). Developmental pathways in boys' disruptive and delinquent behavior. Juvenile Justice Bulletin, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. NCJRS 165152.

Le Blanc, M., Loeber, R., & Janosz, M. (in press). La conduite marginale des individus, une approche développementale. Bulletin de Psychologie.

Thornberry, T. P., Smith, C. A., Rivera, C., Huizinga, D., & Stouthamer-Loeber, M. (Sept., 1999). Family disruption and delinquency, OJJDP Juvenile Justice Bulletin. NCJ 178285

Thornberry, T. P., Wei, E. H., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., & Van Dyke, J. (Jan. 2000). Teenage fatherhood and delinquent behavior, OJJDP Juvenile Justice Bulletin. NCJ 178899

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