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     Youth Gang Bibliography

James C. Howell, Ph.D.
National Youth Gang Center
February 2001

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Abalos, D.T. 1986. Latinos in the United States: The Sacred and the Political. South Bend, IN: University of Notre Dame Press.

Abramsky, S. 1999. When they get out: How prisons, established to fight crime, produce crime. Atlantic Monthly 283(6):30–36.

Achor, S. 1978. Mexican Americans in a Dallas Barrio. Tuscon, AZ: University of Arizona Press.

Ackley, E., and Fliegel, B. 1960. A social work approach to street corner girls. Social Work 5:29–31.

Adamson, C. 1998. Tribute, turf, honor and the American street gang: Patterns of continuity and change since 1820. Theoretical Criminology 2(1):57–84.

Adler, W. 1995. Land of Opportunity. New York, NY: Atlantic Monthly Press.

Agopian, M.W. 1989. Targeting juvenile gang offenders for community service. Community Alternatives: International Journal of Family Care 1:99–108.

Aichorn, A. 1963. Wayward Youth. New York, NY: Viking Press.

Akers, R.L. 1985. Deviant Behavior: A Social Learning Approach. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing.

Albanese, J.S., and Pursley, R.D. 1993. The rebirth of youth gangs. In Crime in America: Some Existing and Emerging Issues, edited by J.S. Albanese and R.D. Pursley. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Regents/Prentice Hall.

Alder, P., Ovando, C., and Hocevar, D. 1984. Familiar correlates of gang membership. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences 6:6–76.

Alinsky, S.D. 1946. Reveille for Radicals. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Allegro, D.B. 1989. Police tactics, drug trafficking, and gang violence: Why the no-knock warrant is an idea whose time has come. Notre Dame Law Review 64:552–570.

Alvarez, A., and Bachman, R. 1997. Predicting the fear of assault at school and while going to and from school in an adolescent population. Violence and Victims 12(1):69–85.

Amandes, R.B. 1979. Hire a gang leader: A delinquency prevention program that works. Juvenile and Family Court Journal 30:37–40.

American Academy of Pediatrics. 1992. Firearms and adolescents. Pediatrics 89:784–787.

American Civil Liberties Union. 1997. False Premise/False Promise: The Blythe Street Gang Injunction and Its Aftermath. Los Angeles, CA: ACLU Foundation of Southern California.

American Correctional Association. 1993. Gangs in Correctional Facilities: A National Assessment. Laurel, MD: American Correctional Association.

Anderson, D.A. 1995. Jail, jail, the gang’s all here: Senate Crime Bill Section 521, the Criminal Street Gang Provision. Boston College Law Review 36(May):527–551.

Anderson, E. 1978. A Place on the Corner. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Anderson, E. 1990. Streetwise: Race, Class, and Change in an Urban Community. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Anderson, E. 1994. The code of the streets. Atlantic Monthly 273(5):80–94.

Anderson, E. 1997. Violence and the inner-city street code. In Violence and Childhood in the Inner City, edited by J. McCord. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, pp. 1–30.

Anderson, G.M. 1992. Punishing the young: Juvenile justice in the 1990’s. America 166:158–163.

Arciaga, M. 2001. Evolution of Prominent Youth Subcultures in America. Tallahassee, FL: National Youth Gang Center, Institute for Intergovernmental Research.

Arlacci, P. 1986. Mafia Business. London, England: Verso.

Armor, J.C., and Jackson, V.K. 1995. Juvenile gang activity in Alabama. Journal of Gang Research 2:29–35.

Armstrong, S. 1988. Los Angeles seeks new ways to handle gangs. Christian Science Monitor (April 25):3.

Arnette, J.L., and Walsleben, M.C. 1998. Combating Fear and Restoring Safety in Schools. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. NCJ 167888.

Arnold, W. 1966. The concept of a gang. The Sociological Quarterly 7:59–75.

Arougheti, P.J. 1994. Imposing homicide liability on gun battle participants for the deaths of innocent bystanders. Columbia Journal of Law and Social Problems 27(Summer):467–521.

Arthur, R., and Erickson, E. 1992. Gangs and Schools. Holmes Beach, FL: Learning Productions.

Ashbury, H. 1971. Gangs of New York: An Informal History of the Underworld. New York, NY: Putnam.

Atkin, S.B. 1996. Voices From the Street: Young Former Gang Members Tell Their Stories. New York, NY: Little, Brown, and Co.

Atkinson, W.A. 1996. Organizing the community response in Aurora, Colorado. In Gangs in America, 2d ed., edited by C.R. Huff. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, pp. 257–262.

Atlee, N. 1990–95. Project Yes! Yes to Education and Skills: The Anti-Drug/Gang Violence Curriculum Project. Costa Mesa, CA: Orange County Department of Education.

Attorney General’s Report to the President. 1995. Anti-Violent Crime Initiative: The First Year (March 1994–February 1995). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice.

Atwood, B.S. 1933. Social participation and juvenile delinquency. Indiana Bulletin of Charity and Correction 210:208–211.

Atwood, B.S., and Shidler, E.H. 1934. Social participation and juvenile delinquency. Sociology and Social Research 18:436–444.

Auletta, K. 1982. The Underclass. New York, NY: Random House.

Aultman, M.G. 1980. Group involvement in delinquent acts: A study of offense types and male-female participation. Criminal Justice and Behavior 7:185–192.

Austin, D., and Braaten, J. 1991. Turning lives around. Police Chief 58:36–38.

Baca, C. 1988. Juvenile gangs in Albuquerque. Paper presented at the meeting of the Federal Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.

Baccaglini, W.F. 1993. Project Youth Gang-Drug Prevention: A Statewide Research Study. Rensselaer, NY: New York State Division for Youth.

Bailey, G., and Unnithan, N.P. 1994. Gang homicides in California: A discriminant analysis. Journal of Criminal Justice 22:267–275.

Baittle, B. 1961. Psychiatric aspects of the development of a street corner group: An exploratory study. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 31:703–712.

Ball, R.A., and Curry, G.D. 1995. The logic of definition in criminology: Purposes and methods for defining “gangs.” Criminology 33(2):225–245.

Bandes, S. 2000. To reform the LAPD, more civilian pressure is necessary. Los Angeles Times (November 19):M6.

Bandura, A., and Walters, R. 1951. Adolescent Aggression. New York, NY: Ronald Press.

Barich, B. 1986. A reporter at large: The crazy life (Los Angeles County gangs). New Yorker 62:97–125.

Baron, S.W. 1997. Canadian male street skinheads: Street gang or street terrorists? Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology 34(2):125–154.

Bastian, L.D., and Taylor, B.M. 1991. School Crime: A National Crime Victimization Survey Report. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics. NCJ 131645.

Batsis, T. 1997. Helping schools respond to gang violence. Journal of Gang Research 4(3):17-22.

Battin-Pearson, S.R., Guo, J., Hill, K.G., Abbott, R.D., and Hawkins, J.D. 1999. Early Predictors of Sustained Adolescent Gang Membership. Seattle, WA: Social Development Research Group, School of Social Work.

Battin-Pearson, S.R., Hill, K.G., Abbott, R.D., Catalano, R.F., and Hawkins, J.D. 1998. The contribution of gang membership to delinquency beyond delinquent friends. Criminology 36(1):93–115.

Battin-Pearson, S.R., Thornberry, T.P., Hawkins, J.D., and Krohn, M.D. 1998. Gang Membership, Delinquent Peers, and Delinquent Behavior. Bulletin. Youth Gang Series. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. NCJ 171119.

Bauer, R., Hasler, C., and Myrent, M. 1997. An Evaluation of the Illinois State Police Gang Crime Witness Protection Program. Chicago, IL: Illinois Criminal Justice Information Authority.

Baumeister, R.F., Smart, L., and Boden, J.W. 1996. Relation of threatened egotism to violence and aggression: The dark side of high self-esteem. Psychological Review 103:5–33.

Bazar, J. 1990. Psychologists can help youth stay out of gangs. APA Monitor (June):39–44.

Beavis, J., and Cumming, G. 1990. Organized Crime: A Bibliography. Ottawa, Ontario: Canadian Police College, Law Enforcement Reference Centre.

Becker, H. 1963. Outsiders—Studies in the Sociology of Deviance. New York, NY: Free Press.

Becker, H.K., Felkenes, G.T., Magana, L., and Huntley, J. 1997. A socioeconomic comparison of drug sales by Mexican-American and Mexican immigrant male gang members. Journal of Gang Research 4:37–47.

Beckman, A.S. 1933. Oversuggestibility in juvenile delinquents. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 28:172–178.

Bedard, L., Eschholz, S., and Gertz, M. 1994. Perceptions of crime and education within the Hispanic community and its impact on corrections. Journal of Correctional Education 45:722–782.

Belitz, J., and Valdez, D.M. 1995. Clinical issues in the treatment of Chicano male gang youths. In Hispanic Psychology: Critical Issues in Theory and Research, edited by A.M. Padilla. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Belitz, J., and Valdez, D.M. 1999. A sociocultural context for understanding gang involvement among Mexican-American male youth. In Psychological Interventions and Research With Latino Populations, edited by J.C. Garcia and M.C. Zea. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

Bellamy, J. 1973. Crime and Public Order in England in the Later Middle Ages. London, England: Routledge and Kegan Paul.

Benda, B.B. 1999. A study of recidivism of serious and persistent offenders among adolescents. Journal of Criminal Justice 27(2):111–126.

Bensinger, G.J. 1984. Chicago youth gangs: A new old problem. Journal of Crime and Justice 7:1–16.

Bensinger, G.J. 1985. Getting serious about Chicago’s gang problems. Law Enforcement News 11 (February 25):8–13.

Bensinger, G.J., and Lurigio, A.J. 1992. Gangs and Community Corrections. Chicago, IL: Loyola University.

Berdie, R.F. 1947. Playing the dozens. The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 42:120–121.

Berg, J.D. 1993. The troubled constitutionality of anti-gang loitering laws. Chicago-Kent Law Review 69(1):461–503.

Bernard, T. 1990. Angry aggression among the “truly disadvantaged.” Criminology 28:73–96.

Bernard, W. 1949. Jailbait. New York, NY: Greenberg.

Bernstein, D. 1980. East L.A.’s gang project. Corrections Magazine (June):36–42.

Bernstein, S. 1964. Youth on the Streets: Work With Alienated Youth Groups. New York, NY: Association Press.

Bernstein, W. 1968. The cherubs are rumbling. In Gang Delinquency and Delinquent Subcultures, edited by J.F. Short. New York, NY: Harper and Row, pp. 22–52.

Berntsen, K. 1979. A Copenhagen youth gang: A descriptive analysis. In New Paths in Criminology, edited by S.A. Mednick, S.G. Sloham, and B. Phillips. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.

Best, J., and Hutchinson, M.M. 1996. The gang initiation rite as a motif in contemporary crime discourse. Justice Quarterly (13):383–404.

Bibb, M. 1967. Gang-related services of mobilization for youth. In Juvenile Gangs in Context: Theory, Research and Action, edited by M. Klein and B.G. Myerhoff. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, pp. 175–182.

Binder, A., Geis, G., and Bruce, D. 1988. Juvenile Delinquency: Historical, Cultural, and Legal Perspectives. New York, NY: Macmillan.

Bing, L. 1991. Do or Die. New York, NY: Harper Collins Publishers.

Bjerregaard, B., and Lizotte, A.J. 1995. Gun ownership and gang membership. The Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 86:37–58.

Bjerregaard, B., and Smith, C. 1993. Gender differences in gang participation, delinquency, and substance use. Journal of Quantitative Criminology 9:329–355.

Blake, M.E. 1958. Youth Groups in Conflict. Washington, DC: Children’s Bureau.

Blake, T.A. 1987. The meaning of culturally appropriate treatment for the Hispanic adolescent. In Alcohol Use and Abuse Among Hispanic Adolescents, edited by M. Singer, L. Davidson, and F. Yalin. Hartford, CT: Hispanic Health Council.

Blanchard, W.H. 1959. The group process in gang rape. Journal of Social Psychology 49:259-266.

Blanchard, W.H. 1963. The juvenile gang: A cultural reflex. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 347:20–29.

Bloch, H.A., and Niederhoffer, A. 1958. The Gang: A Study in Adolescent Behavior. New York, NY: Philosophical Library.

Block, C.R. 1980. Patterns of Change in Chicago Homicide: The Twenties, the Sixties, and the Seventies. Chicago, IL: Illinois Criminal Justice Information Authority.

Block, C.R. 1985. Lethal Violence in Chicago Over Seventeen Years: Homicides Known to the Police, 1965–1981. Chicago, IL: Illinois Criminal Justice Information Authority.

Block, C.R. 1985. Specification of Patterns Over Time in Chicago Homicide: Increases and Decreases, 1965–1981. Chicago, IL: Illinois Criminal Justice Information Authority.

Block, C.R. 1993. Lethal violence in the Chicago Latino community. In Homicide: The Victim-Offender Connection, edited by A.V. Wilson. Cincinnati, OH: Anderson, pp. 267–342.

Block, C.R., and Block, R. 1991. Beginning with Wolfgang: An agenda for homicide research. Journal of Crime and Justice 14:31–70.

Block, C.R., and Christakos, A. 1995. Major Trends in Chicago Homicide: 1965–1994. Chicago, IL: Illinois Criminal Justice Information Authority.

Block, C.R., Christakos, A., Jacob, A., and Przybylski, R. 1996. Street Gangs and Crime: Patterns and Trends in Chicago. Chicago, IL: Illinois Criminal Justice Information Authority.

Block, R. 1977. Violent Crime. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.

Block, R., and Block, C.R. 1992. Homicide syndromes and vulnerability: Violence in Chicago community areas over 25 years. Studies on Crime and Prevention 1:61–87.

Block, R., and Block, C.R. 1993. Street Gang Crime in Chicago. Research in Brief. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, National Institute of Justice.

Block, R., and Jones, E. 1999. Identifying and describing core areas of gang activity. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of Criminology, Toronto, Ontario, November.

Blum, R., Harmon, B., Harris, L., Bergeisen, L., and Resnick, M. 1992. American Indian-Alaska Native youth health. Journal of the American Medical Association 267:1637–1644.

Blumstein, A. 1995. Violence by young people: Why the deadly nexus? National Institute of Justice Journal (August):1–9.

Blumstein, A. 1995. Youth violence, guns, and the illicit-drug industry. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 86:10–36.

Blumstein, A. 1996. Youth Violence, Guns, and Illicit Drug Markets. Research Preview. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, National Institute of Justice. NCJ 152235.

Blumstein, A., Cohen, J., Roth, J.A., and Visher, C.A., eds. 1989. Criminal Careers and Career Criminals. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Blumstein, A., and Cork, D. 1996. Linking gun availability to gun violence. Law and Contemporary Problems 59(Special Issue):5–24.

Blumstein, A., and Rosenfeld, R. 1999. Trends in rates of violence in the U.S.A. Studies on Crime and Prevention 8(2):139–167.

Bobrowski, L.J. 1988. Collecting, organizing, and reporting street gang crime. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of Criminology, Chicago, IL, November.

Bodinger, D. 1993. Membership in Violent Gangs Fed by Suspicion, Deterred Through Respect. Los Alamitos, CA: Southwest Regional Educational Laboratory.

Boga, T.R. 1994. Turf wars: Street gangs, local governments, and the battle for public space. Harvard Civil Rights: Civil Liberties Law Review 29(2 (Summer)):477–503.

Bogardus, E.S. 1926. The City Boy and His Problems: A Survey of Boy Life in Los Angeles. Los Angeles, CA: Rotary Club of Los Angeles.

Bogardus, E.S. 1943. Gangs of Mexican-American youth. Sociology and Social Research 28:55–66.

Bolitho, W. 1930. The gangster traumatism. Survey (March):661–665.

Bolitho, W. 1930. The psychosis of the gang. Survey (February):500–506.

Bonney, L.S. 1993. The prosecution of sophisticated urban street gangs: A proper application of RICO. Catholic University Law Review 42(3):579–613.

Bookin-Weiner, H., and Horowitz, R. 1983. The end of the youth gang: Fad or fact? Criminology 21:585–602.

Bordua, D.J. 1961. Delinquent subcultures: Sociological interpretations of gang delinquency. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 338:119–136.

Bordua, D.J. 1962. A critique of sociological interpretations of gang delinquency. In The Sociology of Crime and Delinquency, edited by M.E. Wolfgang, L. Savitz, and N. Johnston. New York, NY: John Wiley and Sons.

Bordua, D.J. 1962. Some comments on theories of group delinquency. Sociological Inquiry 32:245–260.

Borduin, C.M., Mann, B.J., Cone, L.T., Henggeler, S.W., Fucce, B.R., Blaske, D.M., and Williams, R.A. 1995. Multisystemic treatment of serious juvenile offenders: Long-term prevention of criminality and violence. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 63:569–587.

Bosc, M. 1984. Street gangs no longer just a big city problem. U.S. News & World Report 93(July 16):108–109.

Bossard, J.H.S. 1948. Sociology of Child Development. New York, NY: Harper.

Bowker, L.H., ed. 1998. Masculinities and Violence. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Bowker, L.H., Gross, H.S., and Klein, M.W. 1980. Female participation in delinquent gang activities. Adolescence 15(59):509–519.

Bowker, L.H., and Klein, M.W. 1983. The etiology of female juvenile delinquency and gang membership: A test of psychological and social structural explanations. Adolescence 18(72):739–751.

Bowman, W.R. 1937. Games or gangs. Review of Reviews 95(May):36–37.

Boyle, J., and Gonzales, A. 1989. Using proactive programs to impact gangs and drugs. Law and Order 37:62–64.

Boyle, K. 1992. School’s a Rough Place: Youth Gangs, Drug Users, and Family Life in Los Angeles. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement.

Brace, C.L. 1872. The Dangerous Classes of New York and Twenty Years Work Among Them. New York, NY: Wynkoop and Hallenbeck.

Braga, A.A. 2000. Impact evaluation of Boston’s Operation Ceasefire. Unpublished paper presented at the Annual Conference on Criminal Justice Research and Evaluation, Washington, DC, July.

Braga, A.A., Kennedy, D.M., Waring., E.J., and Piehl, A.M. 2000. Problem-Oriented Policing, Deterrence, and Youth Violence: An Evaluation of Boston’s Operation Ceasefire. Boston, MA: Harvard University, John F. Kennedy School of Government.

Braga, A.A., Piehl, A.M., and Kennedy, D.M. 1999. Youth homicide in Boston: An assessment of supplementary homicide report data. Homicide Studies 3(4):277–299.

Branch, C.W. 1997. Clinical Interventions With Gang Adolescents and Their Families. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Branch. C.W., ed. 1999. Adolescent Gangs: Old Issues, New Approaches. Philadelphia, PA: Brunner/Mazel.

Brantley, A.C., Sorrentino, A., and Torok, W.C. 1994. Focus on gangs. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin 63:1–17.

Breen, L., and Allen, M.M. 1983. Gang behavior: Psychological and law enforcement implications. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin 52(February):19–24.

Bremner, R.H., ed. 1970. Children and Youth in America: A Documentary History. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Brewer, V.E., Damphousse, K.R., and Adkinson, C.D. 1998. The role of juveniles in urban homicide: The case of Houston, 1990–1994. Homicide Studies 2(3):321–339.

Brotherton, D.C. 1996. The contradictions of suppression: notes from a study of approaches to gangs in three public high schools. Urban Review 28(2):95–117.

Brotherton, D.C. 1996. “Smartness,” “toughness,” and “autonomy”: Drug use in the context of gang female delinquency. Journal of Drug Issues 26(1):261–277.

Brown, W. 1983. The Other Side of Delinquency. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.

Brown, W.B. 1998. The fight for survival: African-American gang members and their families in a segregated society. Juvenile and Family Court Journal 49(2):1–14.

Brown, W.B. 1999. Surviving against insurmountable odds: African-American mothers and their gang affiliated daughters. Humanity and Society 23:102–124.

Brown, W.K. 1976. Gangways: An expressive culture approach to understanding gang delinquency. Unpublished thesis. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania.

Brown, W.K. 1977. Black female gangs in Philadelphia. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology 21(3):221–228.

Brown, W.K. 1978. Graffiti, identity, and the delinquent gang. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology 22:39–45.

Brownfield, D., Thompson, K.M., and Sorenson, A.M. 1997. Correlates of gang membership: A test of strain, social learning, and social control theories. Journal of Gang Research 4:11–22.

Brudvig, S., Takata, S.R., and Nommensen, T. 1988. Racine Youth Needs Assessment: Final Report. Kenosha, WI: University of Wisconsin-Parkside, Department of Sociology.

Brunson, R.K. 1997. Pumping up the set: Comparing male and female perceptions of female gang involvement. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of Criminology, San Diego, CA, November.

Bryant, D. 1989. Community Wide Responses Crucial for Dealing With Youth Gangs. Bulletin. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.

Buhmann, E.T. 1991. Gangs in Texas Cities. Austin, TX: Texas Attorney General’s Office.

Bullington, B. 1977. Heroin Use in the Barrio. Lexington, MS: D.C. Heath.

Burch, J., and Kane, C. 1999. Implementing the OJJDP Comprehensive Gang Model. Fact Sheet #122. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. FS 99112.

Burch, J.H. II, and Chemers, B.M. 1997. A Comprehensive Response to America’s Youth Gang Problem. Fact Sheet #40. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. FS 9640.

Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms. 1997. Crime Gun Trace Analysis Reports: The Illegal Youth Firearms Markets in 17 Communities. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Treasury, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms, Firearms Enforcement Division.

Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms. 1997. The Youth Crime Gun Interdiction Initiative. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Treasury, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms, Firearms Enforcement Division.

Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms. 1999. Crime Gun Trace Analysis Reports: The Illegal Youth Firearms Market in Boston. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Treasury, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms, Firearms Enforcement Division.

Bureau of Justice Assistance. 1997. Addressing Community Gang Problems: A Model for Problem Solving. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Assistance. NCJ 156059.

Bureau of Justice Assistance. 1997. Urban Street Gang Enforcement. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Assistance. NCJ 161845.

Bureau of Labor Statistics. 1998. The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, version 1.0 [machine readable data file]. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Labor.

Bureau of Organized Crime and Criminal Intelligence. 1990. Organized Crime in California, 1989: Annual Report to the California Legislature. Sacramento, CA: California Department of Justice.

Burgess, E.W. 1916. Juvenile delinquency in a small city. Journal of the American Institute of Criminal Law and Criminology 6(3):724–728.

Burke, N.D. 1993. Restricting gang clothing in the public schools. West’s Education Law Quarterly 2(3 July):391–404.

Burke, T.W., and O’Rear, C.E. 1990. Home invaders: Asian gangs in America. Police Studies 12:154–156.

Burnes, E., and Deakin, T.J. 1989. A new investigative approach to youth gangs. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin 58:20–24.

Burnett, G., and Walz, G. 1994. Gangs in the school. ERIC Digest Vol. ED 37215. Greensboro, NC: University of North Carolina.

Burr, A. 1987. Chasing the dragon. The British Journal of Criminology 27:333–357.

Burrell, S.L. 1990. Gang evidence: Issues for criminal defense. Santa Clara Law Review 30(Summer):739–790.

Bursik, R.J., Jr., and Grasmick, H.G. 1993. Neighborhoods and Crime: The Dimensions of Effective Community Control. New York, NY: Lexington Books.

Burt, S.C. 1925. The Young Delinquent. London, England: University of London Press.

Busch, K., Zagar, R., Hughes, J., Arbit, J., and Bussel, R. 1990. Adolescents who kill. Journal of Clinical Psychology 46:472–485.

Caeti, T.J., Fritsch, D.J., and Hemmens, C. 1995. Bangin’ in the legislature: A comparison of state statutory responses to gangs. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of Criminology, Boston, MA, November.

Cairns, R.B., and Cairns, B.D. 1994. Lifelines and Risks: Pathways of Youth in Our Time. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Caldarella, P., Sharpnack, J., Loosli, T., and Merrell, K.W. 1996. The spread of youth gangs into rural areas: A survey of school counselors. Rural Special Education Quarterly 15:18–27.

Caldwell-Aden, L., and Altschuler, D.M. 1999. Adolescents leaving gangs: An analysis of risk and protective factors, resiliency, and desistance in a developmental context. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of Criminology, Toronto, Ontario, November.

California Attorney General’s Gang Unit. 1996. Number of Gang Members by Age. Los Angeles, CA: California Department of Justice, Division of Law Enforcement.

California Council on Criminal Justice. 1989. Final Report: Task Force on Gangs and Drugs. Sacramento, CA: California Council on Criminal Justice.

California Department of Justice. 1993. Gangs 2000: A Call to Action: The Attorney General’s Report on the Impact of Criminal Street Gangs on Crime and Violence in California by 2000. Sacramento, CA: California Department of Justice.

California Department of Justice. 1998. Gang-Related Homicides. Intelligence Operations Bulletin #119. Sacramento, CA: California Department of Justice.

California Law Review. 1995. Chicago’s ban on gang loitering: Making sense of vagueness and overreach in loitering laws. California Law Review 83(January):379–417.

Caltabriano, M.L. 1981. National Prison Gang Study. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice.

Camp, C.G., and Camp, G.M. 1988. Management Strategies for Combating Prison Gang Violence. South Salem, NY: Criminal Justice Institute.

Camp, G.M., and Camp, C.G.E. 1985. Prison Gangs: Their Extent, Nature and Impact on Prisons. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice.

Campbell, A. 1981. Girl Delinquents. Oxford, England: Basil Blackwell.

Campbell, A. 1984. The Girls in the Gang: A Report From New York City. New York, NY: Basil Blackwell.

Campbell, A. 1984. Girls’ talk: The social representation of aggression by female gang members. Criminal Justice and Behavior 11:139–156.

Campbell, A. 1984. Self-definition by rejection: The case of gang girls. Social Problems 34:451–466.

Campbell, A. 1986. Self report of fighting by females. British Journal of Criminology 26:28–46.

Campbell, A. 1990. Female participation in gangs. In Gangs in America, edited by C.R. Huff. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications, pp. 163–182.

Campbell, A. 1991. The Girls in the Gang, 2d ed. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell.

Campbell, A., and Muncer, S. 1989. Them and us: A comparison of the cultural context of American gangs and British subcultures. Deviant Behavior 10:271–288.

Campbell, A., Muncer, S., and Galen, J. 1982. American gangs and British subcultures: A comparison. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology 26:76–89.

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