Appendix B: OJJDP Publications and Products From the Research Division 1994-Present

The publications listed below are available through OJJDP's Juvenile Justice Clearinghouse by calling 800-638-8736, visiting OJJDP's Web site at, or by e-mailing the Clearinghouse at The products listed below are available through OJJDP's Web site at


1996 National Youth Gang Survey (Summary). 1999. 75 pp. NCJ 173964. FREE

Presents findings of the 1996 National Youth Gang Survey, conducted by the National Youth Gang Center. The 1996 survey was the largest of its type -- results are based on a sample of more than 3,000 law enforcement agencies and are nationally representative. Survey results indicate that the youth gang problem is substantial and affects communities of all types. The Summary provides analysis and statistics on number, types, and locations of gangs; member demographics; and gang involvement in crime and drugs. Copies of the 1995 National Youth Gang Survey also are available.

1998 Annual Report on School Safety (Report). 1998. 46 pp. NCJ 173934. FREE.

Provides parents, schools, and the community with an overview of the scope of school crime, and describes actions schools and communities can take to address this critical issue. This Report includes data that indicate a substantial amount of crime, including violent crime, against both students and teachers. It also supplies profiles of schools that have put in place programs that include school security, education in violence prevention, counseling, and specialized student services. Steps for developing and implementing a comprehensive school safety plan are described.

1998 Report to Congress: Title V Incentive Grants for Local Delinquency Prevention Programs (Report). 1999. 56 pp. NCJ 176342. FREE.

Presents the activities and accomplishments of the Title V Incentive Grants for Local Delinquency Prevention Programs. With this program, OJJDP provides communities with the framework, tools, and funding necessary to initiate comprehensive and sustainable strategies that address juvenile delinquency and other problem behaviors. This Report begins with a review of current trends in juvenile justice and the role Title V plays in the prevention and control of juvenile problem behaviors. Subsequent chapters review the allocation of resources provided to date; examine the experiences of participating States and local communities; and discuss how State and Federal efforts coordinate to support local delinquency prevention. Reports for previous years also are available.

Beyond the Walls: Improving Conditions of Confinement for Youth in Custody (Report). 1998. 128 pp.
NCJ 164727. FREE.

Provides tools that juvenile justice advocates and professionals can use to enhance conditions of confinement for detained and incarcerated youth. Discusses six approaches for improving conditions of confinement for youth in custody.

Boot Camps for Juvenile Offenders (Summary). 1997. 53 pp. NCJ 164258. FREE.

Explores diverse sources of information to address the questions, obstacles, and pitfalls that are likely to arise in planning and operating a boot camp for juvenile offenders. Provides a conceptual framework and practical guide for policymakers, corrections officials, and service providers who are weighing decisions about implementing or expanding juvenile boot camp programs.

Causes and Correlates of Delinquency Program (Fact Sheet). 1999. 2 pp. FS-99100. FREE.

Presents a brief overview of the research design used by the Causes and Correlates projects, which are designed to improve the understanding of serious delinquency, violence, and drug use by examining how youth develop within the context of family, school, peers, and community. The program comprises three longitudinal projects: the Denver Youth Survey, the Pittsburgh Youth Study, and the Rochester Youth Development Study. The Causes and Correlates Program represents a milestone in criminological research because it constitutes the largest shared-measurement approach ever achieved in delinquency research.

Conditions of Confinement: Juvenile Detention and Corrections Facilities (Summary). 1994. 26 pp. NCJ 141873. FREE.

Reports the findings on conditions in juvenile confinement facilities, including overcrowding, violence, suicidal behavior, and escapes. Also examines institutional security, treatment programming, education, healthcare, and protection of juveniles' rights.

Counting What Counts: The Census of Juveniles in Residential Placement (Fact Sheet). 1998. 2 pp. FS-9874. FREE.

Describes the differences between the Census of Public and Private Juvenile Detention, Shelter, and Correctional Facilities (also known as the Children in Custody or CIC series) and its successor, the Census of Juveniles in Residential Placement (CJRP) and the enhanced capabilities the new series provides. OJJDP inaugurated CJRP in 1997. The new census meets a pressing need for information that can answer a wide variety of questions on juvenile detention, corrections, and placement.

Delinquency Cases in Juvenile Courts, 1996 (Fact Sheet). 1999. 2 pp. FS-99109. FREE.

Presents statistics on delinquency cases processed in juvenile courts in 1996. Juvenile courts in the United States processed an estimated 1.8 million delinquency cases in 1996. The number of delinquency cases handled by juvenile courts increased 49 percent between 1987 and 1996. Since 1987, drug law violation cases have increased 144 percent, person offense cases have increased 100 percent, public order offense cases have increased 58 percent, and property offense cases have increased 23 percent. These estimates are based on data from nearly 1,800 courts that had jurisdiction over 67 percent of the U.S. juvenile population. This Fact Sheet is based on the OJJDP Report, Juvenile Court Statistics 1996.

Delinquency Cases Waived to Criminal Court, 1987-1996 (Fact Sheet). 1999. 2 pp. FS-9999. FREE.

Presents data from the National Juvenile Court Data Archive on cases transferred from juvenile court to criminal court via judicial waiver between 1987 and 1996. The profile of cases waived to criminal court changed considerably between 1987 and 1996. Prior to 1992, more property offense cases than person offense cases were waived. In 1996, although waived person offense cases (43 percent) still outnumbered property offense cases (37 percent), the gap had closed somewhat. From 1989 through 1992, the types of cases most likely to be waived were drug offense cases, whereas in 1996 the types of cases most likely to be waived were person offense cases.

Developmental Pathways in Boys' Disruptive and Delinquent Behavior (Bulletin). 1997. 20 pp. NCJ 165692. FREE.

Summarizes longitudinal research from the Pittsburgh Youth Study, which shows that the development of disruptive and delinquent behavior in boys generally takes place in an orderly, progressive fashion, with less serious problem behaviors preceding more serious problem behaviors. The researchers documented three developmental pathways that display progressively more serious problem behavior among boys in three conceptually different domains: authority conflict, covert actions, and overt actions.

Epidemiology of Serious Violence (Bulletin). 1997. 12 pp. NCJ 165152. FREE.

Presents notable findings from OJJDP's Program of Research on the Causes and Correlates of Delinquency three coordinated, longitudinal research projects that constitute the largest shared-measurement approach ever achieved in delinquency research. At study sites in Rochester, NY, Denver, CO, and Pittsburgh, PA, the three research teams interviewed 4,000 participants at regular intervals for nearly a decade, recording their lives in detail.

Female Offenders in the Juvenile Justice System (Summary). 1996. 36 pp. NCJ 160941. FREE.

Analyzes patterns in the arrest, judicial management, and correctional placement of female offenders. Contains tables and figures that show the changing profile of female delinquency between 1983 and 1993.

Gang Members and Delinquent Behavior (Bulletin). 1997. 6 pp. NCJ 165154. FREE.

Presents findings from the Rochester Youth Development Study concerning the portion of delinquency in American society that can be attributed to gang members. Describes OJJDP's balanced use of prevention, intervention, and suppression programs in response to the growing gang problem.

Gang Members on the Move (Bulletin). 1998. 12 pp. NCJ 171153. FREE.

Examines whether gang migration has been a major influence in the proliferation of gangs. The emergence and growth of gangs in cities once thought to be free from the violence and crime of larger cities has led some to believe that migrating gangs or gang members are the cause. This Bulletin defines "gang," "gang proliferation," and "gang migration"; explores how and whether gang migration affects proliferation; and reviews trends reported in research literature. Gang migration patterns in different regions of the country are examined and the findings from a national survey are explored.

Gang Membership, Delinquent Peers, and Delinquent Behavior (Bulletin). 1998. 12 pp. NCJ 171119. FREE.

Describes the findings of OJJDP-funded longitudinal research involving juveniles in Seattle, WA, and Rochester, NY. This research addressed a fundamental question: "Does gang membership contribute to delinquency above and beyond the influence of associating with delinquent peers?" The answer was yes in both cities, despite significant differences in demographics. One implication of these findings is that communities developing comprehensive approaches to reducing juvenile violence and victimization must consider the role of youth gangs and the necessity of including youth gang prevention, intervention, and suppression components.

Gang Suppression and Intervention: Community Models (Summary). 1994. 34 pp. NCJ 148202. FREE.

Presents a framework for creating promising approaches to reducing the problem of youth gangs. Applies to both chronic and emerging gang problems. Looks at the roles of the family, community, schools, police, courts, and corrections in addressing the gang problem.

Gang Suppression and Intervention: Problem and Response (Summary). 1994. 32 pp. NCJ 149629. FREE.

Provides initial findings from research on the youth gang problem. Describes a range of institutional responses and presents recommendations for promising approaches, policies, and programs.

Guidelines for Screening Care Providers (Fact Sheet). 1999. 2 pp. FS-9992. FREE.

Describes the need to implement screening policies in organizations and programs that care for children, the elderly, and individuals with disabilities. Basic screening, which includes requiring potential employees or volunteers to fill out a comprehensive application, conducting thorough interviews, and performing reference checks, is the first step. Additional screening could involve examining criminal records and abuse and sex offender registries and performing alcohol, drug, and psychological tests. Any screening process must be tailored to meet the needs of the organization using the process.

Highlights of Findings From the Denver Youth Study (Fact Sheet). 1999. 2 pp. FS-99106. FREE.

Presents findings from the Denver Youth Study, a longitudinal study of urban youth. The study, one of three coordinated projects supported by OJJDP since 1986 through its Program of Research on the Causes and Correlates of Delinquency, explored changes in the nature of delinquency and drug use from the 1970's to the 1990's. Overall, there was little change in the prevalence rates of delinquency although the level of injury from violent offenses increased substantially. The relationship between drug use and delinquency has changed; the prevalence of drug use decreased substantially, and a smaller percentage of serious delinquents is using hard drugs.

Highlights of Findings From the Pittsburgh Youth Study (Fact Sheet). 1999. 2 pp. FS-9995. FREE.

Presents findings from the Pittsburgh Youth Study, a longitudinal study of 1,517 inner-city boys from Pittsburgh, PA. This study has been following three samples of boys for more than a decade to advance knowledge about how and why boys become involved in delinquent and other problem behaviors. One of the important findings to emerge from the study was that the boys generally developed disruptive and delinquent behavior in an orderly, progressive fashion, with less serious problem behaviors preceding more serious problem behaviors.

Highlights of Findings From the Rochester Youth Development Study (Fact Sheet). 1999. 2 pp. FS-99103. FREE.

Presents selected findings from the Rochester Youth Development Study, a longitudinal study of 1,000 urban adolescents and 1 of 3 coordinated projects supported by OJJDP through its Program of Research on the Causes and Correlates of Delinquency. The Rochester study is investigating the causes and consequences of adolescent delinquency and drug use by following a sample of high-risk urban adolescents from their early teenage years through their early adult years. The study examined family influences on delinquency, school factors, peer influence on behavior, gang membership and delinquency, structural position, youth involvement with guns, and consequences of delinquent behavior.

Highlights of the 1997 National Youth Gang Survey (Fact Sheet). 1999. 2 pp. FS-9997. FREE.

Presents statistics on the prevalence of youth gangs throughout the country. Gang activity continued to affect a large number of cities and counties in 1997. However, there was a slight reduction in the number of jurisdictions reporting active youth gangs compared with 1996. While the estimated number of gangs and gang members in the Nation decreased slightly, the number of gang members in small cities and rural counties increased. In 1997, most respondents perceived their gang problem was "staying about the same," while in 1995 they felt that it was "getting worse." The degree of gang member involvement in criminal activity also fell compared with 1996.

How Juveniles Get to Criminal Court (Bulletin). 1994. 6 pp. NCJ 150309. FREE.

Presents statistics on the number of juveniles transferred to adult criminal court through judicial waiver, prosecutorial discretion, and statutory exclusion.

In the Wake of Childhood Maltreatment (Bulletin). 1997. 16 pp. NCJ 165257. FREE.

Explores the connections between child maltreatment and problem behavior as a teen, drawing on the Rochester Youth Development Study. The National Committee to Prevent Child Abuse estimates that 1 million children suffered maltreatment in the United States in 1995 alone. Research indicates that childhood maltreatment raises victims' risk of juvenile delinquency, teenage pregnancy, drug abuse, and emotional and mental health disorders during adolescence.

Innovative Community Partnerships: Working Together for Change (Summary). 1994. 40 pp. NCJ 147483. FREE.

Describes strategies employed by Dade County, FL, Lansing, MI, and Norfolk, VA, designed to improve the quality of life for families and communities through the integration of community policing and human service initiatives.

Intensive Aftercare for High-Risk Juveniles: A Community Care Model (Summary). 1994. 20 pp. NCJ 147575. FREE.

Reports the interim findings of OJJDP's initiative to assess intensive juvenile aftercare program models for serious, violent, and chronic juvenile offenders. Describes the framework for the prototype proposed for field testing.

Intensive Aftercare for High-Risk Juveniles: An Assessment (Report). 1994. 210 pp. NCJ 144018. $15.00 (U.S.), $19.50 (Canada and other countries).

Presents a review of programs and literature concerning juvenile prerelease, transition, reintegration, and aftercare. Includes information on assessment and classification for risk and need, descriptions of community- and institution-based programs, and an overview of theory-driven interventions.

Intensive Aftercare for High-Risk Juveniles: Policies and Procedures (Summary). 1994. 38 pp. NCJ 147712. FREE.

Explains the underlying principles and program elements of the intensive aftercare program model, which can be applied in a variety of settings. Addresses organizational factors, case management, and program evaluation.

Juvenile Arrests 1997 (Bulletin). 1998. 12 pp. NCJ 173938. FREE.

Provides a summary and a preliminary analysis of national and State juvenile arrest data reported in the FBI's November 1998 report, Crime in the United States -- 1997. The data show decreases in juvenile violent crime, despite continuing growth in the juvenile population. In 1997, for the third year in a row, the total number of juvenile arrests for Violent Crime Index offenses -- murder, forcible rape, robbery, and aggravated assault -- declined. Between 1994 and 1997, juvenile arrests for violent crime declined 23 percent. The percentage of violent crimes cleared by juvenile arrests also has declined. Copies of Juvenile Arrests for previous years also are available.

Juvenile Arson, 1997 (Fact Sheet). 1999. 2 pp. FS-9991. FREE.

Presents statistics on juvenile arrests for arson. The overall arson rate in 1997 was highest in large cities and lowest in rural areas. In 1997, 20,000 arrests were made for which the most serious offense was arson. In 50 percent of these arrests, the person involved was under age 18. Arson was the criminal offense with the greatest portion of juveniles in the arrestee population. More than half (53 percent) of juvenile arson cases disposed by the courts in 1996 were formally processed.

Juvenile Court Processing of Delinquency Cases, 1986-1995 (Fact Sheet). 1999. 2 pp. FS-99101. FREE.

Presents national data on delinquency cases processed by juvenile courts from 1986 through 1995. Between 1986 and 1995, the delinquency caseload of U.S. juvenile courts increased 45 percent. The number of cases formally processed by juvenile courts rose from 554,000 to 938,400 during this time period, while the number of cases handled informally (without a petition or court hearing) increased 24 percent. The largest relative changes were in formal processing of liquor law violation cases and weapons offense cases. Despite increases in the use of formal processing, the proportion of delinquency cases that result in adjudication or waiver did not change substantially.

Juvenile Court Processing of Delinquency Cases, 1987-1996 (Fact Sheet). 1999. 2 pp. FS-99104. FREE.

Presents national data on delinquency cases processed by juvenile courts from 1987 through 1996. National estimates were generated using information from the National Juvenile Court Data Archive, which gathered data from 1,800 jurisdictions containing 67 percent of the U.S. juvenile population. Analysis of data found that more than half of delinquency cases handled by juvenile courts in 1996 were formally processed, and the number of formally processed delinquency cases increased 78 percent between 1987 and 1996. In nearly one-third of all delinquency cases referred to juvenile courts, the youth was adjudicated delinquent or waived to criminal court.

Juvenile Court Property Cases (Bulletin). 1990. 6 pp. NCJ 125625. FREE.

Analyzes property offense referrals to juvenile courts by nature of offense, disposition, and offender characteristics.

Juvenile Court Statistics 1996 (Report). 1999. 113 pp. NCJ 168963. FREE.

Describes delinquency cases and status offense cases handled by U.S. juvenile courts during 1996. Serves as a reference guide to help policymakers, researchers, and the public to better understand the juvenile justice system. Includes detailed tables and figures. Copies of Juvenile Court Statistics for previous years also are available.

Juvenile Intensive Supervision: Planning Guide (Summary). 1994. 92 pp. NCJ 150065. FREE.

Describes this intermediate sanction program as an alternative to secure detention. Provides program components and implementation information for model programs.

Juvenile Justice Reform Initiatives in the States: 1994-1996 (Report). 1997. 96 pp. NCJ 165697. FREE.

Identifies and analyzes issues and trends associated with State juvenile reform initiatives. Provides information to policymakers on the mechanisms that States are using to respond to increased youth violence and delinquency. The Report explores the more punitive measures, such as new criminal court transfer authority and expanded juvenile court sentencing options.

Juvenile Mentoring Program: 1998 Report to Congress (Report). 1998. 65 pp. NCJ 173424. FREE.

Provides an overview of the principles guiding OJJDP's approach to juvenile crime prevention and the community environment affecting that approach. Describes individual JUMP grants and intervention models implemented in communities, and provides descriptions of the youth being served, their volunteer mentors, and the nature of their mentoring relationship. Examines initial evaluation findings and some promising indicators of success, and presents anticipated directions for future mentoring and mentoring-related activities. Positive outcomes include reports from mentors and youth that mentoring was a positive experience and that youth benefited from the experience, specifically in staying away from alcohol and drugs, avoiding fights and friends who are starting trouble, keeping away from gangs, and not using guns or knives.

Juvenile Offenders in Residential Placement, 1997 (Fact Sheet). 1999. 2 pp. FS-9996. FREE.

Presents initial analyses from the 1997 CJRP. This census collected information on each offender in residential placement including age, race, sex, and offense. Information from this Fact Sheet shows that of the young offenders in residential facilities, the most were minority males who had committed serious personal or property offenses. Two statistical tables are included.

Juvenile Offenders and Victims: 1997 Update on Violence (Summary). 1997. 52 pp. NCJ 165703. FREE.

Provides updated information and statistics on juvenile crime, violence, and victimization, extrapolating 1995 data from various reports. Presents complex information on juvenile crime using clear, nontechnical writing and easy-to-understand graphics and tables. This Summary is an addendum to the 1995 Report Juvenile Offenders and Victims: A National Report. Copies of Juvenile Offenders and Victims: 1996 Update on Violence also are available.

Juvenile Offenders and Victims: A Focus on Violence (Summary). 1995. 40 pp. NCJ 153570. FREE.

Provides information and statistics on crime, violence, and victimization committed by and against juveniles, extrapolating 1992 data from various reports. Presents complex information on juvenile crime using clear, nontechnical writing and easy-to-understand graphics and tables. This Summary is an addendum to the 1995 Report Juvenile Offenders and Victims: A National Report.

Juvenile Offenders and Victims: A National Report (Report).1995 196 pp. NCJ 153569. FREE.

Synthesizes the most comprehensive information available on juvenile crime, violence, and victimization and the juvenile justice system. Provides the baseline for analyzing trends in the growth of the juvenile population; the rates of juvenile arrests, homicides, suicides, maltreatment, and violent crime victimizations; and the justice system's response to juvenile crime.

Juvenile Probation: The Workhorse of the Juvenile Justice System (Bulletin). 1996. 6 pp. NCJ 158534. FREE.

Summarizes the workload problems, agency initiatives, and special issues of juvenile probation professionals as reported in the 1992 Juvenile Probation Officer Initiative Survey. Describes the probation profession, the youth it serves, and the issues it faces, including on-the-job safety, insufficient resources, understaffing, and overcrowded caseloads.

Juvenile Vandalism, 1996 (Fact Sheet). 1998. 2 pp. FS-9885. FREE.

Examines juvenile vandalism arrest data for 1996. Forty-four percent of all arrests for vandalism in 1996 were of persons under age 18. The Fact Sheet also includes data on the formal court processing of juvenile vandalism cases.

Juveniles Taken Into Custody: Fiscal Year 1993 (Report). 1995. 200 pp. NCJ 154022. FREE.

Summarizes data on the number of juveniles taken into custody in the United States and presents the latest developments in creating a new National Juvenile Corrections Reporting System. Reports for previous years are also available.

Never Too Early, Never Too Late: Risk Factors and Successful Interventions for Serious and Violent Juvenile Offenders (Report). 1997. Available from the Juvenile Justice Clearinghouse, 800-638-8736.

Offers a comprehensive assessment of research-based knowledge about serious and violent juvenile offenders. The Report tells professionals across the criminal and juvenile justice systems what is known, what programs have been tried, how well they have performed, and what lessons policymakers and practitioners can draw from them. The full findings of the Study Group's research can be found in Serious & Violent Juvenile Offenders: Risk Factors and Successful Interventions, edited by R. Loeber and D.P. Farrington, 1998, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.

Offenders in Juvenile Court, 1996. (Bulletin). 1999. 12 pp. NCJ 175719. FREE.

Presents findings from Juvenile Court Statistics 1996, the latest in a series of annual reports on cases handled by U.S. courts with juvenile jurisdiction. Although courts with juvenile jurisdiction handle a variety of cases, including abuse, neglect, adoption, and traffic violations, Juvenile Court Statistics reports focus on the disposition of delinquency cases and formally processed status offense cases. Juvenile courts in the United States processed nearly 1.8 million delinquency cases in 1996. This number represented a 3-percent increase over the 1995 caseload and a 49-percent increase over the number of cases handled in 1987. Copies of Offenders in Juvenile Court for previous years also are available.

OJJDP Statistical Briefing Book. 1999. Available at

Provides basic information on juvenile crime and victimization and on youth involved in the juvenile justice system. Data in several content areas, such as population characteristics and juvenile arrests, provide timely, reliable, statistical answers to the most frequently asked questions of policymakers, the media, and the general public.

Prenatal and Early Childhood Nurse Home Visitation (Bulletin). 1998. 8 pp. NCJ 172875. FREE.

Describes the nurse home visitation program and explains how it successfully reduces the risks for early development of antisocial behavior and maternal and juvenile offending. Presents evidence detailing the program's effectiveness in reducing the risk for early antisocial behavior and preventing problems associated with youth crime and delinquency such as child abuse, maternal substance abuse, and maternal criminal involvement. Three of the risk factors associated with early development of antisocial behavior can be modified: adverse health-related behaviors during pregnancy that are associated with children's neuropsychological deficits, child abuse and neglect, and troubled maternal life course.

Promising Strategies To Reduce Gun Violence (Report). 1999. 253 pp. NCJ 173950. FREE.

Presents profiles of 60 demonstrated or promising programs and strategies that address the problem of gun violence; examines the nature of the problem from a national perspective, including current trends; and discusses the process of developing a solution. The profiles briefly describe the type of program, its goals, and the target group and target area and give contact information. They are grouped according to whether they are comprehensive, interrupt sources of illegal guns, deter possession and carrying, respond to illegal use, or provide for education initiatives and alternative prevention. This OJJDP Report also includes a section on resources for research, technical assistance, and education; geographical and alphabetical program indexes; and a matrix of participating agencies.

Report to Congress on Juvenile Violence Research (Report). 1999. 30 pp. NCJ 176976.

Provides a brief overview of the findings of four new violence studies examining the causes and correlates of serious and violent juvenile offending in urban and rural settings, and three existing studies. The four new studies funded by OJJDP include (1) Studies of Violence Committed By or Against Juveniles in Washington, DC; (2) Juvenile Violence in Los Angeles; (3) Violence Among Rural Youth; and (4) The Milwaukee Homicide Study. The existing studies OJJDP continued funding include three coordinated longitudinal projects, known collectively as the Program of Research on the Causes and Correlates of Delinquency.

Serious and Violent Juvenile Offenders (Bulletin). 1998. 8 pp. NCJ 170027. FREE.

Summarizes a Report by the Study Group on Serious and Violent Juvenile Offenders. The Report provides valuable insights into the pathways to serious and violent juvenile offending and offers empirical evidence that the key to its reduction lies in early prevention efforts aimed at high-risk youth and interventions with these offenders.

State Legislative Responses to Serious and Violent Juvenile Crime (Report). 1996. 78 pp. NCJ 161565. FREE.

Documents and analyzes national changes in the handling of serious and violent juvenile offenders from 1992 to 1995. Implications for policy and practice are offered as considerations for lawmakers and policymakers.

State Legislative Responses to Violent Juvenile Crime: 1996-97 Update (Bulletin). 1998. 16 pp. NCJ 172835. FREE.

Analyzes State laws enacted in 1996 and 1997 to target serious and violent juvenile crime. This Bulletin highlights trends concerning jurisdictional authority, judicial disposition/sentencing authority, corrections programming, confidentiality, and victims of juvenile crime. Seven tables are included.

Strategies To Reduce Gun Violence (Fact Sheet). 1999. 2 pp. FS-9993. FREE.

Presents an overview of the findings from the OJJDP Report, Promising Strategies To Reduce Gun Violence. Drawn from a national survey of more than 400 local programs, the Report describes 60 strategies and programs designed to address gun violence. This Fact Sheet describes common intervention points used by promising or innovative programs and lists the communities that are implementing comprehensive gun violence reduction strategies across the United States.

Treating Serious Anti-Social Behavior in Youth: The MST Approach (Bulletin). 1997. 8 pp. NCJ 165151. FREE.

Highlights evaluations of several programs that have implemented the multisystemic therapy (MST) approach to the treatment of serious antisocial behavior in youth. MST is a home-based service approach that was developed in response to the lack of scientifically proven, cost-effective treatment. MST focuses on improving psychosocial functioning for youth and their families so that the need for out-of-home child placements is reduced or eliminated.

Trying Juveniles as Adults in Criminal Court: An Analysis of State Transfer Provisions (Report). 1998. 112 pp. NCJ 172836. FREE.

Analyzes the principal statutory mechanisms and criteria by which juveniles are placed in the criminal justice system at the State level for serious and violent crimes. The Report describes waiver, direct file, statutory exclusion, once an adult/always an adult, and reverse waiver provisions. Written by the National Center for Juvenile Justice, the Report is based on State statutes as amended through 1997. Ten tables and an appendix that summarizes transfer provisions in all 50 States and the District of Columbia are included.

Urban Delinquency and Substance Abuse: Initial Findings (Summary). 1994. 36 pp. NCJ 143454. FREE.

Summarizes preliminary findings of longitudinal research on the causes and correlates of juvenile delinquency. Examines the age of onset and prevalence of delinquency, drug use, and other problem behaviors and youth's relationships to peers and family. Characteristics of effective intervention programs also are described.

Urban Delinquency and Substance Abuse: Technical Report (Report). 1993. 624 pp. NCJ 146416. $25.60 (U.S.), $33.40 (Canada and other countries).

Provides a comprehensive description of the findings from the first 3 years of OJJDP's Program of Research on the Causes and Correlates of Delinquency. Discusses the research methodology and findings and offers relevant policy-related observations.

What Works: Promising Interventions in Juvenile Justice (Report). 1994. 258 pp. NCJ 150858. $19.00 (U.S.), $26.75 (Canada and other countries).

Contains descriptions of more than 400 juvenile delinquency prevention and treatment programs throughout the United States. Also includes contact persons for programs characterized as successful by professionals in the field.

The Youngest Delinquents: Offenders Under Age 15 (Bulletin). 1997. 12 pp. NCJ 165256. FREE.

Presents the findings of a study that examined recent data on juvenile arrests and the delinquency cases processed by U.S. juvenile courts. The data presented in this Bulletin will enable policymakers and the public to better understand the role that younger delinquents play in the overall problem of juvenile crime and violence.

The Youth Gangs, Drugs, and Violence Connection (Bulletin). 1999. 12 pp. NCJ 171152. FREE.

Describes the relationships among youth gangs, drugs, and violence. This OJJDP Bulletin, part of the Youth Gang Series, provides a historical overview of gang drug use and trafficking, the current image of youth gangs, and policy and program implications. Also discussed are connections between youth gangs and adult criminal organizations and the role of firearms in gang violence.

Youth Gangs: An Overview (Bulletin). 1998. 20 pp. NCJ 167249. FREE.

Gives an overview of the proliferation of youth gangs across the United States, the problems associated with these gangs, and suggestions for program options. This Bulletin, the first in OJJDP's Youth Gang Series, addresses the mounting public concern about the increase in youth gangs. It describes the changing composition of these gangs, the scope of the problem, and the risk factors for youth gang membership in community, family, school, peer group, and individual settings.


Easy Access Series

Easy Access is a family of software packages developed for OJJDP by the National Center for Juvenile Justice to give a larger audience access to recent, detailed information on juvenile crime and the juvenile justice system.

Easy Access to FBI Arrest Statistics 1991-1995.

Presents national, State, and county estimates of juvenile and adult arrests, rates, and trends for the FBI's Crime Index offenses; 27 different tables for every State and county in the United States are provided. Results can be saved to a print file for easy insertion in other documents.

Easy Access to the FBI's Supplementary Homicide Report 1980-1996.

Explores variations and trends in State and national homicide victim and offender profiles. Immediate answers to questions about age, sex, race, weapon use, and victim-offender relationship are given. Results are presented in tabular and graphic formats and can be stored in output files that are easily read by spreadsheet or word processing packages.

Easy Access to Juvenile Court Statistics 1987-1996.

Enables researchers, students, and juvenile justice professionals to analyze the large database that underlies the annual Juvenile Court Statistics reports. Demographic, offense, and case processing variables are included, allowing users to develop detailed descriptions of the delinquency cases processed in the Nation's juvenile courts. Data are presented in tabular and graphic formats that can be saved to output files for use in word processing and spreadsheet applications.

OJJDP Research: Making a Difference for Juveniles August 1999