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Appendix E: Endnotes

  1. Howard A. Davidson, Cynthia P. Cohen and Linda K. Girdner, ABA Center on Children and the Law, Establishing Ombudsman Programs for Children and Youth (1993).

  2. Id. at 95.

  3. 1995 Conn. Acts 95-242A.

  4. Davidson, supra note 1, at vi, 61.

  5. See R.I. Gen. Laws 42-73-1 et seq. (1993) (enactment creating the Office of the Child Advocate).

  6. Davidson, supra note 1, at 65-66, 95-98.

  7. R.I. Gen. Laws 42-73-9(3) (1993); Office of the Child Advocate staff, 1995.

  8. See R.I. Gen. Laws 42-73-5 (1993).

  9. See generally Thomas Finn and Laureen D'Ambra, Lawyering for Children in the Care of the State, R.I. Bar J., Mar. 1994, at 7; Davidson, supra note 1, at 65-66; 95-98.

  10. See R.I. Pub. Doc. Nos. 89-118, 89-121, 90-122, 90-123, 91-126, 91-127, 96-136.

  11. R.I. Gen. Laws 42-73-7(2)(1993). See also Finn and D'Ambra, supra note 10, at 7-8.

  12. R.I. Gen. Laws 42-73-7(4) (1993). See generally The Rhode Island Child Advocate's Review of Children in Residential Placement Facilities, R.I. Pub. Doc. 89-120 (1989) (report on the methodology and results of the office's review process).

  13. R.I. Gen. Laws 42-72-15 (1993).

  14. R.I. Gen. Laws 42-73-9(1)(1993)

  15. R.I. Gen. Laws 42-73-7(6)(1993).

  16. See R.I. Gen. Laws 42-74-1 et seq. (1993) (creating Children's Code Commission).

  17. See, e.g., Laws Affecting Children: A Guide to the R.I. Public Laws of 1995, R.I. Pub. Doc. 95-134 (1995).

  18. See R.I. Gen. Laws 42-73-7(6), 42-73-9.1 (1993); Finn and D'Ambra, supra note 10, at 10.

  19. Rhode Island and four other States have an independent ombudsman reporting to the Governor; at least 20 other States have some kind of advocate for children and families, according to Howard Davidson, director of the American Bar Association Center on Children and the Law. Kathy Barks Hoffman, Ombudsman is in Kids' Corner, The Detroit News, July 10, 1995, at 1-D.

  20. Alaska Stat. 24.55.010 et seq. (1992).

  21. State of Alaska Ombudsman, Ombudsman's Guide to the Alaska Child Support System.

  22. Id.

  23. Id.

  24. The Arkansas Coalition for Juvenile Justice (formerly the Arkansas Juvenile Supervisory Board) was established by executive order of the Governor in 1981.

  25. See supra note 3.

  26. See Kimberly J. McLarin, Slaying of Connecticut Infant Shifts Policy on Child Abuse, N.Y. Times, July 30, 1995, at A-1; Candy J. Cooper, Children in Balance, The Detroit Free Press, May 6, 1996, at 1-A.

  27. Davidson, supra note 1, at 77.

  28. Fla. Stat. ch. 402.165 et seq. (1986 & Supp. 1993).

  29. Davidson, supra note 1, at 77-78.

  30. See, e.g., Statewide Human Rights Advocacy Committee Annual Report 1995/96.

  31. 325 Ill. Comp. Stat. Ann. 20/1 et seq. (West 1993).

  32. Davidson, supra note 1, at 76-77.

  33. Davidson, supra note 1, at 76-77.

  34. Davidson, supra note 1, at 79.

  35. Davidson, supra note 1, at 79.

  36. Davidson, supra note 1, at 79.

  37. Candy J. Cooper, Ombudsman Stresses Independence, The Detroit Free Press, Jan. 10, 1995, at 1-A.

  38. Cecil Angel, Children Have Ombudsman on Their Side, The Detroit Free Press, Jan. 5, 1995, at 1-A.

  39. Judy Putnam, Children's Ombudsman Protects Kids, The Flint Journal, Oct. 1, 1995, at A-3, A-10. Also, See generally Hoffman, supra note 19 at 1-D; Candy J. Cooper and Jack Kresnak, Confusion, Fight Put Boy in the Middle, The Detroit Free Press, May 9, 1995, at 1-A; Rick Brundrett, Police Have Called Five Area Children's Deaths Homicides, But No Charges Have Been Filed, The Herald-Palladium (Southwest Michigan), April 14, 1996, at 1-A; Brenda Ingersoll, State's Ombudsman for Kids Has Hope and a Lot to Prove, The Detroit News, April 13, 1995; Richard Bearup, Children's Ombudsman Begins Duties, Michigan Chronicle, Mar. 29-Apr. 4, 1995.

  40. See Cooper and Kresnak, supra note 39.

  41. Putnam, supra note 39 at A-3.

  42. Candy J. Cooper, The Children's Watchdog, The Detroit Free Press, Feb. 18, 1996, at 1-F, 4-F.

  43. See Davidson, supra note 1, at 70-74.

  44. Minn. Stat. 257.0755 et seq. (Supp. 1991).

  45. In one county alone, 97 percent of children removed from their families were children of color. The Ombudsman Roundtable, Ombudsman Services in Minnesota: Making Government Responsive to Citizens, A Comprehensive Overview with Recommendations for Efficient Ombudsman Services, at A-3, Dec. 1995 [hereinafter Ombudsman Services].

  46. Id. at 10.

  47. Id. at A-27; Minn. Stat. 257.0755 (Supp. 1912 & 1994).

  48. Davidson supra note 1, at 71-72.

  49. Minn. Stat. 245.91 et seq. (1982 & Supp. 1993).

  50. Ombudsman Services, supra note 45, at 10, A-5.

  51. Minn. Stat. 245.95 (1982 & Supp. 1993).

  52. Office of the Ombudsman of Mental Health and Mental Retardation, Annual Report to the Governor (1994), at 7, 30.

  53. Davidson, supra note 1, at 73.

  54. Ombudsman Services, supra note 45, at A-5.

  55. Okla. Stat. tit. 10 601.1 et seq. (1982).

  56. Oklahoma Commission on Children and Youth, 1994 Annual Report, at 1, 2.

  57. Id. at 10-11.

  58. Okla. Stat. tit. 10, 601.1 (1982).

  59. See Oklahoma Commission on Children and Youth, supra note 56, at 1.

  60. See Office of Juvenile System Oversight, Report of a Complaint Investigation, A Psychiatric Hospital, I.D. No. 761-94, Mar. 3, 1995; Office of Juvenile System Oversight, Report of a Complaint Investigation, A Private Psychiatric Hospital, I.D. No. 698-93, Feb. 6, 1995. The Oklahoma Commission on Children and Youth was authorized to create the Office of Juvenile System Oversight by Okla. Stat. tit. 10, 601.3. OJSO performs the inspection, investigative and oversight functions. See Oklahoma Commission on Children and Youth, Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Profile: A Governmental Response to Monitoring the Juvenile Justice System.

  61. S Code Ann. 20-7-2376 et seq. (Law Co-op 1985).

  62. State of South Carolina, Office of the Governor, Division of Foster Care Review Annual Report 1994-95, at 1-2.

  63. See Office of the Governor, Division of Ombudsman and Citizen Services, Executive Summary; Davidson, supra note 1, at 67-70.

  64. S Code Ann. 20-7-5210 et seq. (Law Co-op 1985 & Supp. 1992); Davidson, supra note 1, at 67-68.

  65. S Code Ann. 20-7-5240(f)-(I) (Law Co-op 1985 & Supp. 1992).

  66. S Code Ann. 20-7-6709(c) (Law Co-op 1985 & Supp. 1992).

  67. See Executive Summary, supra note 63.

  68. Tex. V.T A., Hum. Res. Code Ann. 48.081 (West 1997).

  69. Texas Department of Protective and Regulatory Services, A Legislative Guide to the Ombudsman Office.

  70. The State has Child Death Teams to investigate fatalities.

  71. Letter from Betty B. Hable, Director, Ombudsman Office, to Rhode Island Office of the Child Advocate, Nov. 7, 1995 (on file at OCA).

  72. In the fall of 1995, 23 States had teams that reviewed individual cases of child deaths; 6 States were establishing teams; 5 were planning to establish teams; and 2 were reconsidering their review processes. In addition, 27 States reported local teams in some stage of implementation and another 4 States were planning to implement them. See Sarah R. Kaplan, What's Out There, Unified Response: The Child Fatality Review Team Newsletter, Fall 1995, at 6.

  73. Ariz. Rev. Stat. Ann. 36-3501 et seq. (West 1993).

  74. Robert Schackner, Arizona's Child Fatality Review Program, Unified Response: the Child Fatality Review Team Newsletter, 1996.

  75. See Arizona Department of Health Services, Arizona Child Fatality Review Team First Annual Report (1994).

  76. See Arizona Department of Health Services, supra note 75.

  77. Ariz. Rev. Stat. Ann. 36-3504 (West 1993).

  78. Mo. Rev. Stat. 210.192 (1992).

  79. Missouri Department of Social Services, State Technical Assistance Team, Missouri Child Fatality Review Program Annual Report 1994, at 1, 31 (Sept. 1995).

  80. Mo. Rev. Stat. 660.520, 210.110 et seq. (1992).

  81. Missouri Department of Social Services, State Technical Assistance Team, supra note 79, at 1-3.

  82. See Children's Action Alliance, The State of Arizona's Children Action Agenda (1994).

  83. Id. Arizona Kids Count Partnership is a collaborative effort between CAA and the Morrison Institute for Public Policy at Arizona State University. It is one of 48 State projects funded by the Anne E. Casey Foundation to identify trends in child well-being.

  84. Children's Action Alliance, Who's for Kids, Who's Just Kidding? 36 Questions To Ask Candidates Running for Public Office in Arizona (1994); Children's Action Alliance, A Platform for Arizona's Children (1994).

  85. A compromise bill, the Arizona Children and Family Stability Act, was enacted in June 1994. See Irene Jacobs, The Little Bill That Could: Success by Six, Arizona Children Today, Summer 1994 at 1, 12. See also Success by Six: a Project of Children's Action Alliance, Quiet Crisis, Early Care and Education in Arizona (1994).

  86. See Child Welfare Institute, Ideas In Action: Tenth Anniversary Issue (1994).

  87. Michigan Association of Children's Alliances, Speaking Up for Kids, Feb. 1995 (advocacy/membership newsletter).



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