Statistical Briefing Book > Youth in Corrections Previous Page
Demographics
Q: How do residential placement rates vary by race?
A: For every 100,000 Black youth living in the U.S., 346 were in a residential placement facility on October 23, 2019 - for Hispanic youth the rate was 92, and for white youth it was 75.

State residential placement rates by race/ethnicity, 2019

State of offense Total White Black Hispanic American
Indian1
Asian1 More than
one race
U.S. total 114 75 346 92 274 21 70
Alabama 161 109 305 65 *0 †*39 128
Alaska 330 245 1,361 †*45 799 231 *0
Arizona 80 64 293 67 106 *25 131
Arkansas 145 †99 327 †128 †*133 †*129 167
California 103 52 520 †113 280 15 17
Colorado 130 78 741 160 *183 62 *25
Connecticut 27 †8 †83 †36 †1,550 *17 †*23
Delaware 139 46 425 *60 *0 *0 *0
District of Columbia 262 †*37 401 *83 *0 *0 *0
Florida 104 94 311 7 *0 *11 *5
Georgia 110 41 243 47 *0 *14 60
Hawaii 50 *39 *0 62 *0 49 54
Idaho 163 140 †1,697 175 687 *215 *92
Illinois 64 †33 235 †39 †*324 †*4 †43
Indiana 161 141 347 72 *0 †*17 359
Iowa 133 85 944 115 *554 *0 146
Kansas 113 84 549 110 *252 *65 *18
Kentucky 129 92 459 75 *0 *35 220
Louisiana 143 50 303 40 *91 *0 *23
Maine 51 43 365 *0 *0 *0 *0
Maryland 82 32 191 55 *0 *0 *20
Massachusetts 46 20 150 107 *0 *7 *39
Michigan 157 88 519 88 237 *30 184
Minnesota 161 †76 †734 †197 1,010 †50 †72
Mississippi 61 28 107 *40 *0 *0 *0
Missouri 107 82 325 *24 *147 *24 *38
Montana 133 106 †*1,372 *101 331 *0 †*64
Nebraska 145 69 829 197 1,291 *54 *36
Nevada 173 151 580 117 *123 55 158
New Hampshire 19 14 *253 *38 *0 *0 *0
New Jersey 57 14 261 58 *0 *3 *34
New Mexico 121 289 632 58 64 *0 *56
New York 54 31 181 37 *56 *5 47
North Carolina 93 39 269 34 324 *0 45
North Dakota 104 72 451 *71 343 *280 *0
Ohio 148 86 498 86 *357 *10 154
Oklahoma 80 57 372 37 124 *31 *8
Oregon 164 152 904 169 472 64 *26
Pennsylvania 129 74 462 107 *182 32 152
Rhode Island 114 75 551 79 *589 *0 *137
South Carolina 141 64 332 49 *0 *0 *36
South Dakota 179 112 760 212 515 *0 *0
Tennessee 50 28 133 42 *0 *22 61
Texas 126 77 364 115 *40 14 *9
Utah 58 39 507 109 *165 *50 *22
Vermont 33 31 *308 *0 *0 *0 *0
Virginia 109 60 297 102 *0 †*15 46
Washington 94 64 465 112 317 45 69
West Virginia 290 253 1,179 415 *0 *0 279
Wisconsin 92 44 572 53 382 *32 *15
Wyoming 239 205 *1,103 241 826 *0 *327

1American Indian includes Alaskan Natives; Asian includes Pacific Islanders.
* Rate based on fewer than 10 observations.
† Interpret data with caution. In these states, 30% or more of the information for race/ethnicity was imputed. Visit the EZACJRP methods section for more information about imputation.

Notes: The term ‘youth’ refers to persons under age 21 who were in a facility because they were charged with or adjudicated for an offense.

This information is based on the state where the offense was committed. However, the state of offense is not always reported. Youth for whom state of offense was unknown are included in U.S. totals (1,895 in 2019). These instances are not evenly distributed across states. As such, users should exercise caution when examining state-level trends or comparing states. Visit the EZACJRP methods section for more information.

U.S. total includes a small number of youth (4) who committed their offense in a U.S. Territory, but excludes youth in tribal facilities.

The residential placement rate is the number of youth in residential placement on October 23, 2019 per 100,000 youth age 10 through the upper age of original juvenile court jurisdiction in each state.

Race groups exclude persons of Hispanic ethnicity. Hispanic persons can be of any race.

To protect the confidentiality of the youth in residential placement rates presented from CJRP are based on rounded counts. More information on this rounding rule is available on the EZACJRP Web site.


Internet citation: OJJDP Statistical Briefing Book. Online. Available: https://www.ojjdp.gov/ojstatbb/corrections/qa08203.asp?qaDate=2019. Released on May 21, 2021.

Data Source: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. Census of Juveniles in Residential Placement 2019 [machine-readable data files]. Washington, D.C.: OJJDP.