U.S. Department of Justice, Office Of Justice Programs, Innovation - Partnerships - Safer Neighborhoods
Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Working for Youth Justice and Safety
About DMC



Disproportionate Minority Contact


Since 1988, the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) has been a leader in efforts to reduce the overrepresentation of minority youth in the Nation's juvenile justice system. A Disproportionate Minority Contact Chronology: 1988 to Date outlines a history of this effort.

OJJDP's DMC website is a resource to help States comply with the JJDP Act's DMC requirements and a source of information for all who are interested in understanding and engaged in reducing the extent of DMC.

Core Requirement of JJDP Act

In the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (JJDP) Act of 2002, Congress required that States participating in the Formula Grants Program "address juvenile delinquency prevention efforts and system improvement efforts designed to reduce, without establishing or requiring numerical standards or quotas, the disproportionate number of juvenile members of minority groups, who come into contact with the juvenile justice system" (see section 223(a)(22)).

States participating in the Formula Grants Program address DMC on an ongoing basis by moving through the following phases:

  • Identification. To determine the extent to which DMC exists.
  • Assessment. To assess the reasons for DMC, if it exists.
  • Intervention. To develop and implement intervention strategies to address these identified reasons.
  • Evaluation. To evaluate the effectiveness of the chosen intervention strategies.
  • Monitoring. To note changes in DMC trends and to adjust intervention strategies as needed.

Each State must report on its progress in its comprehensive JJDP 3-year plan and subsequent plan updates (in compliance with Section 223(a)(22)). OJJDP reviews the plan updates annually. Any State that fails to address the overrepresentation of minority youth in juvenile justice system contact stands to lose 20 percent of its Formula Grants allocation for the year.


DMC Web-Based Data Entry System

The DMC Relative Rate Index (RRI) Web-based Data Entry System website is designed for use by Juvenile Justice Specialists and state and local DMC Coordinators. This site provides a step-by-step process for entering DMC data and producing required state-specific reports. The site provides responses to frequently asked questions about the RRI and the ability to export data to Excel for reporting in the Compliance Monitoring Tool. Contact DMC@usdoj.gov for assistance.

National DMC Databook

OJJDP has added a National Disproportionate Minority Contact (DMC) Databook to its Statistical Briefing Book. The DMC Databook enables users to review the processing of delinquency cases within the juvenile justice system and assess levels of disproportionate minority contact at various decision points. It includes national data for 1990-2014, which can then be compared with local data.

Requesting Training and Technical Assistance

Requests for training and technical assistance (TTA) may be submitted through OJJDP's TTA360 system. TTA360 is a centralized TTA request system that allows you to submit a request to any of OJJDP's TTA grantee providers. You may create and manage your own TTA360 account, and view progress on your requests in real time. Please note that the request should be requested at least 60 days before the assistance is required.

Launch OJJDP's TTA 360 system


Find contact information for the Juvenile Justice Specialist and, if applicable, the DMC Coordinator for each state/territory. States can contact their OJJDP State Program Manager.

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