Assessment of Space Needs in Juvenile
Detention and Corrections


To study the supply of and demand for detention and corrections space in the juvenile justice systems nationally and in 10 specific States and to develop concrete recommendations for conducting future analyses.


Public Law 105-119, November 26, 1997, Making Appropriations for the Departments of Commerce, Justice, and State, the Judiciary, and Related Agencies for the Fiscal Year Ending September 30, 1998, and for Other Purposes (Appropriations Act), appropriated $250 million for the Juvenile Accountability Incentive Block Grants (JAIBG) program described in Title III of H.R. 3, as passed by the House of Representatives on May 8, 1997. (Applicants can retrieve the full text of H.R. 3 and the Appropriations Act from the Internet at the official Web site for the U.S. Congress (, which contains a searchable data base of all recent legislation and bills presently under consideration by either the House of Representatives or the Senate.) Of the $250 million, 3 percent has been set aside for research, evaluation, and demonstration programs. The project described here will be funded through this 3-percent setaside.

Under the Appropriations Act, eligibility for States to receive block grants under the JAIBG program is based on certification by the Governor (or other chief executive) that the State is actively considering, or will consider within 1 year from the date of certification, legislation, policies, or practices that, if enacted, would qualify such State for a grant under Section 1802 of H.R. 3. The terms and details of such certification are spelled out in the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention's (OJJDP's) Juvenile Accountability Incentive Block Grants (JAIBG) Program: Guidance Manual FY 1998. The Guidance Manual is available through OJJDP's Juvenile Justice Clearinghouse (800-638-8736) or online at OJJDP's Web site at on the grants and funding page.

In the Appropriations Act, while Congress authorized States and units of local government to use JAIBG program funds to construct juvenile detention and correctional facilities, a concern was expressed about the lack of information relating to the supply of and demand for bed space in juvenile detention and corrections facilities. Congress directed that the issue be examined nationally, with a focus on 10 specific States. As the Conference Report on the Appropriations Act indicates:

The conferees are concerned that little data exists on the capacity of juvenile detention and corrections facilities to handle both existing and future needs and direct the Office of Justice Programs to conduct a national assessment of the supply of and demand for juvenile detentionspace with particular emphasis on capacity requirements in New Hampshire, Mississippi, Alaska, Wisconsin, California, Montana, West Virginia, Kentucky, Louisiana, and South Carolina, and to provide a report to the Committees on Appropriations of the House and the Senate by July 15, 1998.

OJJDP has adopted a two-track strategy to address congressional intent and meet the July 15, 1998, deadline. The first track will gather a group of researchers and consultants to develop the assessment due July 15. This assessment report will discuss the issues of measuring the supply of bed space in detention and correctional facilities and the demand for that space. To the extent it is available, the report will provide national and State-level data that provide relevant bed space capacity measures. Finally, the assessment will address the capacity characteristics of the 10 States identified. The first track is being developed directly by OJJDP under separate agreements with several researchers and organizations. This track will function independently of the second track, which is described in and will be awarded through this solicitation.

OJJDP recognizes that the initial assessment will necessarily be limited in its ability to measure supply and demand for space in juvenile detention and correctional facilities in the 10 States because of time limitations and insufficient data. Also, the assessment will not necessarily provide a strong substantive analysis of the supply and demand "dynamics" in the 10 States or in the Nation as a whole because of the complexity of the issues involved and the present level of knowledge concerning the issue of bed space needs. Such an analysis will require considerably more time, effort, and resources than are available within the initial assessment timeframe. The second track provides for a more indepth project.

Cooperative agreement applications submitted under this solicitation will not have the benefit of the thinking and analysis resulting from the track one report. Therefore, the workplan presented in the application should be flexible enough to take into consideration issues raised in the assessment report that were not identified in the application.


To provide an indepth analysis of the supply and demand for detention and corrections bed space nationally and to develop analytic tools to analyze the supply and demand in the future at both the national and State levels. The tools may take the form of a specific analytic model, a data collection instrument, or another appropriate mechanism.


To achieve the goals stated above, the project must include the following objectives:

Bullet Provide a comprehensive analysis of the issues involved in determining the supply and demand for detention and corrections bed space at the national, State, and local levels.
Bullet Develop a model of the supply and demand functions that can guide national and State decisions concerning the supply of and demand for detention and corrections bed space.
Bullet Use data available or collect data, where practical, to apply this model at the State and national levels.

Program Strategy

OJJDP has determined that a 2-year research effort is required to fully address the issues of supply and demand for detention and corrections bed space. While the issues involved are not necessarily new, the particular perspective and the unique compilation of information will be innovative. This project will first need to develop the conceptual parameters necessary for measuring both the supply of and demand for detention and corrections bed space. With regard to demand, the project should provide some mechanism to develop projections of the residential population. This mechanism should be flexible enough to test policy alternatives. With regard to supply, the project should develop a mechanism to determine the inventory or stock of facility bed space available for youth entering the system.

In determining the demand for detention and corrections bed space, juvenile justice practitioners and policymakers must be able to project the number of juveniles entering the system and the proportion of those requiring a bed in a residential facility. The overall number will depend largely on the population of a particular jurisdiction, the offending rate in that jurisdiction, and the arrest rate of offenders. The particular policy composition of that jurisdiction will also determine which juveniles require a space in either detention or correctional facilities. The project must then develop a methodology for determining what the bed space needs are (based on these and other factors) and how these needs can change depending on the policy environment, population makeup, and offending patterns of youth.

An examination of the supply of residential bed space, for example, reduces in its most basic form to a study of the capacity of facilities. Capacity itself is a difficult concept to operationalize and measure. The capacity of a facility is closely linked to the types of youth held in the facility, the length of stay in that facility, and the ability of facility administrators to accept or refuse particular juveniles. In measuring the supply of bed space available to a particular jurisdiction, several other factors figure prominently. For example, if a State or county is sparsely populated, a space in a suitable facility may not be readily available. Also, a State or county may choose to rely on private facilities (in or out of the State) to a greater or lesser extent. Finally, the availability of certain types of residential bed space might be limited by specific laws, policies, or practices without actually eliminating the bed from the overall inventory. For example, if a court order prohibits double bunking in rooms below a certain number of square feet, the facility's ability to expand capacity to meet demand will be limited. Similarly, budgetary constraints may not allow a facility to fill all beds in the inventory, resulting in actual space availability that is lower than the physical capacity.

Program Design

This project will be a cooperative agreement between OJJDP and the recipient organization. Such an agreement involves the substantial involvement of OJJDP with the recipient during the performance of the project activities. Under the terms of the cooperative agreement, OJJDP will review and approve or disapprove key personnel and consultant selections; review assessments, plans, instruments, manuals, and documents developed or identified for use during the project; and approve or suggest modifications in a timely manner. Given such a structure, applicants must indicate key decision points for OJJDP review and approval and how OJJDP will be kept informed of the recipient's progress in meeting the project goals and objectives.

As part of the overall management structure, applicants should include a significant mechanism(s) to involve State experts or specialists. While such State participation can be accomplished through telephone, e-mail, and mail contacts, applicants should plan a meeting of State experts at a logical point in the project to provide for an efficient and complete exchange of ideas and information.

OJJDP expects significant contribution to and oversight of the project by a project advisory board. The advisory board will provide an independent review of the project's activities and products. While not directly involved in the project's management structure, the board should have an opportunity to discuss the issues involved in this project and provide input to the recipient.

OJJDP will review the qualifications of all project consultants (including advisory board members) and provide approval/disapproval in a timely manner. Applicants should propose individuals for appointment to this board in the application. The board should consist of at least five persons representing a wide range of knowledge and experience. Applicants should consider persons from the fields of psychology, criminology, sociology, statistics, survey methods, and social psychology. Applicants should plan for at least two meetings of the advisory board. The first meeting will be held early in the project period to discuss the overall objectives, goals, and design of the project. The second advisory board meeting should take place in the second year of the project to provide a forum for discussing project direction and findings as warranted. In any event, the advisory board must be provided an opportunity to review and comment on all project products. The advisory board should also review and comment on project progress reports.

Applicants should be aware of the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ) requirements for privacy and confidentiality in statistical and research efforts. These requirements are stipulated by Title 42 of the United States Code, Section 3879g. DOJ has issued specific regulations concerning the implementation of this statutory requirement in 28 CFR Part 22 (see appendix). Applicants will not be required to complete the necessary confidentiality certification; however, the recipient's authority to draw down funds will be limited until the certification process is complete.

Applicants are advised that any data collection developed or used by this project must have approval from the Office of Management and Budget as stipulated in the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. Such approval takes a minimum of 90 days and requires supporting documentation.Applicants that include new or unapproved data collections should include this approval process in the management and project design sections of the application.

If human subjects will be involved in the project, applicants must acquire review from an appropriate institutional review board (IRB). If no human subjects will be involved in the research, applicants must document that no IRB review is required. IRB review will not be required for an application; however, if a review is necessary, the recipient's drawdown of funds will be limited until the review is complete.


This project will produce the following specific products, which are closely related yet appropriate for different audiences:

  1. A research summary suitable for publication by OJJDP that discusses, for the general juvenile justice audience, the issues involved with determining bed space needs and capacity in juvenile detention and corrections facilities. This document may be published by OJJDP for the general juvenile justice community, including policymakers, legislators, and practitioners.

  2. A final research report that discusses the full methodology of the project and includes all relevant information. This will serve as a thorough description of the overall project, mainly for reference purposes. It will be housed at the Juvenile Justice Clearinghouse as a resource document but may be published at OJJDP's discretion.

  3. An article suitable for submission to academic journals. The article will disseminate the findings and conclusions of the project to academic audiences. OJJDP expects the recipient to submit the article for publication by appropriate journals after review and comment by OJJDP.

  4. Semiannual progress reports that are expected to include substantive discussions of the goals, objectives, methods, and findings of the project. Applicants should view these reports as major communications between the grantee and OJJDP. The progress reports will be working documents that should reflect major decisions and cite supporting documentation.

Eligibility Requirements

OJJDP invites applications from public and private agencies, organizations, institutions, or individuals. Private, for-profit organizations must agree to waive any profit or fee. Joint applications from two or more eligible applicants are welcome; however, one applicant must be clearly indicated as the primary applicant (for correspondence, award, and management purposes) and the others indicated as coapplicants.

Selection Criteria

Applicants will be evaluated and rated by a peer review panel according to the criteria outlined below.

Problem(s) To Be Addressed (25 points)

Applicants must provide a clear conceptualization of the problem, including a list of research questions. Each application will be rated based on its discussion of the overall juvenile justice issues involved and the detention and corrections bed space needs issues in particular.

Goals and Objectives (15 points)

The application must include a concrete statement of the goal(s) of the project. The goal(s) should relate to and be supported by the "Problem To Be Addressed" section of the application. The objectives of the project should correspond to specific tasks that the applicant will undertake to achieve the overall goals. The objectives must be measurable in order to provide a tracking mechanism for the entire project. The goals and objectives of the project must relate to the goals and objectives of OJJDP as stated above and should be clearly linked.

Project Design (25 points)

Applicants should provide an overall discussion of the project design, including research questions and a discussion of the methodology to answer them. The methodology should be suitable for the questions and the overall goals of the project. Further, the methodology must logically connect with the available data or data the project anticipates collecting.

The application must include a timeline that indicates when specific tasks will be started and completed. The timeline must be referenced as appropriate in the narrative; however, the timeline itself should be appendix A of the application.

OJJDP will not have completed the report to Congress due on July 15 by the application deadline for this project. Applicants must include in their applications a specific mechanism for including the results of the report in the project design at the beginning of the project.

Management and Organizational Capabilities (25 points)

Applicants must demonstrate an organizational capacity to complete the work anticipated in the project design. Specifically, the applicant should indicate how its organization would meet the needs of the project (for example, the necessary skills and abilities of the staff, the facilities the applicant has ready access to, and computer facilities). As an appendix, the applicant should include a brief description of similar projects undertaken by the organization. Applicants must include résumés of key staff in an appendix to the application. This appendix should include résumés of persons nominated for the advisory board.

Applicants should provide a management structure that accomplishes the necessary tasks of the project, as spelled out above, in the discussion of the project design.

Applicants must also demonstrate a management structure that will achieve the goals and objectives of the project in an efficient and cost-effective manner. Applicants should pay particular attention to specifying how the tasks of the project, as delineated in the "Program Design" section of the application, will be accomplished through the oversight of project management.

Budget (10 points)

Applicants must provide a proposed budget that is complete, detailed, reasonable, allowable, and cost effective in relation to the activities to be undertaken.


Applicants must submit a program narrative that does not exceed 50 pages in length. The narrative should include a discussion of the problem to be addressed, the project's goals and objectives, the project design, and the management and organizational capabilities. The page limit does not include the budget, budget narrative, application forms, assurances, certifications, or appendixes. The appendixes should be in the following order:

Appendix A: Timeline
Appendix B: Confidentiality Certifications and Necessary IRB Documentation
Appendix C: Key Staff Résumés
Appendix D: Organizational Capability Statement
Appendix E: Other supporting materials (optional)

The narrative must be submitted on 8½- by 11-inch paper, double spaced on one side of the paper in a standard 12-point font. These standards are necessary to maintain a fair and uniform standard among all applicants. If the narrative does not conform to these standards, OJJDP will deem the application ineligible for consideration.

Award Period

OJJDP intends to award one cooperative agreement for a 2-year budget and project period.

Award Amount

Up to $700,000 is available under this program for the 2-year budget and project period.

Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance (CFDA) Number

For this program, the CFDA number, which is required on Standard Form 424, Application for Federal Assistance, is 16.523. This form is included in OJJDP's Application Kit, which can be obtained by calling the Juvenile Justice Clearinghouse at 800-638-8736 or by sending an e-mail request to The Application Kit is also available online at (See the Introduction for more contact information.)

Coordination of Federal Efforts

To encourage better coordination among Federal agencies in addressing State and local needs, DOJ is requesting applicants to provide information on the following: (1) active Federal grant award(s) supporting this or related efforts, including awards from DOJ; (2) any pending application(s) for Federal funds for this or related efforts; and (3) plans for coordinating any funds described in items (1) or (2) with the funding sought by this application. For each Federal award, applicants must include the program or project title, the Federal grantor agency, the amount of the award, and a brief description of its purpose.

"Related efforts" is defined for these purposes as one of the following:

Bullet Efforts for the same purpose (i.e., the proposed award would supplement, expand, complement, or continue activities funded with other Federal grants).
Bullet Another phase or component of the same program or project (e.g., to implement a planning effort funded by other Federal funds or to provide a substance abuse treatment or education component within a criminal justice project).
Bullet Services of some kind (e.g., technical assistance, research, or evaluation) to the program or project described in the application.

Delivery Instructions

All application packages should be mailed or delivered to the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, c/o Juvenile Justice Resource Center, 2277 Research Boulevard, Mail Stop 2K, Rockville, MD 20850; 301-519-5535. Note: In the lower left-hand corner of the envelope, the applicant must clearly write "Assessment of Space Needs in Juvenile Detention and Corrections."

Due Date

Applicants are responsible for ensuring that the original and five copies of the application package are received by 5 p.m. ET on July 15, 1998.


For further information, call Joe Moone, Program Manager, Research and Program Development Division, 202-307-5929, or send an e-mail inquiry to