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Juveniles in Corrections
State Comparisons
Q: What factors influence State residential placement rates?
A: State residential placement rates are impacted by offense type and facility operation.

State residential placement rates by offense and facility operation, 2019

State of offense Upper age of
Juvenile Court
Jurisdiction
Number
of
offenders
Placement
rate
Delinquency
rate
Public
facility
Delinquency
rate
Private
facility
Status
rate
Public
facility
Status
rate
Private
facility
U.S. total 36,479 114 84 26 1 3
Alabama 17 798 161 97 56 *1 7
Alaska 17 255 330 248 †70 *0 *8
Arizona 17 606 80 77 †3 *0 *0
Arkansas 17 465 146 †120 24 *1 *1
California 17 4,131 102 †90 †12 *0 †0
Colorado 17 753 130 119 10 *1 *0
Connecticut 17 96 27 24 3 *0 *0
Delaware 17 129 139 113 26 *0 *0
District of Columbia 17 117 262 195 †67 *0 *0
Florida 17 2,001 104 46 58 *0 *0
Georgia 16 1,119 110 99 7 *0 3
Hawaii 17 63 49 45 †*2 *0 *0
Idaho 17 342 164 141 †20 *1 †*3
Illinois 17 834 64 †62 1 *0 †1
Indiana 17 1,155 161 102 49 3 6
Iowa 17 441 133 64 69 *0 *1
Kansas 17 360 113 106 4 4 *0
Kentucky 17 588 130 90 7 †9 24
Louisiana 17 693 143 95 40 6 2
Maine 17 60 51 51 *0 *0 *0
Maryland 17 495 82 66 †15 *0 *0
Massachusetts 17 288 46 28 17 *0 *0
Michigan 16 1,353 157 82 63 5 7
Minnesota 17 948 161 †134 20 2 5
Mississippi 17 198 61 59 *0 *2 *0
Missouri 16 588 108 97 4 7 *0
Montana 17 138 133 78 †49 *0 †*6
Nebraska 17 309 145 †110 27 *1 7
Nevada 17 546 174 156 17 *1 *0
New Hampshire 17 24 20 10 *7 *0 *0
New Jersey 17 513 58 55 †2 *0 *0
New Mexico 17 270 122 113 5 *1 †*3
New York 16 837 54 28 19 *0 6
North Carolina 15 744 93 79 †11 *1 †2
North Dakota 17 78 104 80 16 *4 *0
Ohio 17 1,746 148 134 11 2 2
Oklahoma 17 345 80 64 17 *0 *0
Oregon 17 651 164 141 22 *1 *0
Pennsylvania 17 1,566 129 56 62 *0 11
Rhode Island 17 108 114 47 57 *3 *6
South Carolina 16 633 141 94 42 3 *2
South Dakota 17 171 180 120 57 *3 *3
Tennessee 17 345 50 38 10 *1 †*1
Texas 16 3,699 126 110 14 †1 *0
Utah 17 246 58 43 13 *1 †*1
Vermont 17 18 33 *6 28 *0 *0
Virginia 17 918 109 105 1 3 *0
Washington 17 693 94 90 †3 *0 *0
West Virginia 17 483 291 134 92 *5 58
Wisconsin 16 477 93 77 12 †*2 *1
Wyoming 17 147 239 185 29 *15 *5

* Rate based on fewer than 10 observations.
† Interpret data with caution. In these states, 30% or more of the information for offense was imputed. Visit the EZACJRP methods section for more information about imputation.

Notes: The information in this table is based on the state where the offense was committed. However, the state of offense is not always reported. Youth for whom state of offense was unknown are included in U.S. totals (1,895 in 2019). These instances are not evenly distributed across states. As such, users should exercise caution when examining state-level trends or comparing states. Visit the EZACJRP methods section for more information.

U.S. total includes a small number of offenders (4) who committed their offense in a U.S. Territory but excludes youth in tribal facilities.

The residential placement rate is the number of juvenile offenders in residential placement per 100,000 juveniles age 10 through the upper age of original juvenile court jurisdiction in each state.

To protect the confidentiality of juvenile residents all published data from the Census of Juveniles in Residential Placement (CJRP) are rounded to the nearest multiple of three. Each state cell is rounded independently, without consideration as to row or column totals. As a result, in many tables, the internal cells do not add to the marginal totals. Rates and percentages presented from CJRP are also based on rounded totals. More information on this rounding rule is available on the EZACJRP Web site.

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  • Whereas most delinquents are in public facilities, most status offenders are in private facilities. State residential placement rates based only on delinquents in public facilities are very different from rates that include status offenders and offenders in private facilities. Of course, several factors influence variations in State placement rates. Differences in States’ upper age of juvenile court jurisdiction, extended age of jurisdiction (i.e., how long the juvenile justice system has jurisdiction over youth for dispositional purposes), and provisions for transfer to criminal court; jurisdictions’ demographic composition; offenders’ offense profiles; and bedspace availability in custodial facilities effect placement rates. Thus, State placement rate comparisons should be interpreted with caution.

Internet citation: OJJDP Statistical Briefing Book. Online. Available: https://www.ojjdp.gov/ojstatbb/corrections/qa08602.asp?qaDate=2019. Released on May 21, 2021.

Data Source: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. Census of Juveniles in Residential Placement 2019 [machine-readable data files]. Washington, D.C.: OJJDP.

 

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