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Juveniles in Corrections
State Comparisons
Q: How do commitment rates vary by race?
A: For every 100,000 non-Hispanic black juveniles living in the U.S., 226 were committed to a residential placement facility on October 25, 2017 - for Hispanics the rate was 71, and for non-Hispanic whites it was 55.

State commitment rates by race/ethnicity, 2017

State of offense Total White Minority Black Hispanic American
Indian1
Asian1
U.S. total 85 55 121 226 71 149 11
Alabama 77 52 116 137 45 *0 *33
Alaska 164 89 257 480 *0 310 *117
Arizona 28 18 35 50 29 *24 *12
Arkansas 116 81 184 195 174 *0 *44
California 67 32 81 254 77 103 7
Colorado 110 69 170 450 137 *0 *13
Connecticut 14 *3 33 67 19 *0 *0
Delaware 90 25 164 266 *0 *0 *0
District of Columbia 69 *0 76 97 *0 *0 *0
Florida 92 60 118 262 30 *55 *0
Georgia 51 23 76 99 34 *0 *14
Hawaii 19 *0 20 *0 *16 *0 *11
Idaho 157 144 205 591 133 *355 *0
Illinois 38 17 63 152 15 *116 *4
Indiana 102 82 157 205 69 *168 *17
Iowa 115 65 330 678 122 *461 *32
Kansas 65 51 96 222 57 *0 *0
Kentucky 76 48 200 266 47 *0 *0
Louisiana 114 45 194 232 *12 *90 *0
Maine 53 49 *86 *155 *94 *0 *0
Maryland 35 15 51 70 26 *0 *0
Massachusetts 26 10 59 91 64 *0 *0
Michigan 107 70 193 258 50 *127 *9
Minnesota 68 35 158 259 60 423 *16
Mississippi 34 18 50 42 137 *140 *0
Missouri 109 85 183 241 67 *0 *22
Montana 79 61 161 *213 *54 198 *0
Nebraska 154 81 344 659 172 681 *0
Nevada 110 68 136 405 78 *200 *23
New Hampshire 43 30 142 *200 169 *898 *0
New Jersey 38 6 70 176 36 *0 *0
New Mexico 78 31 92 *186 94 61 *0
New York 50 31 69 154 30 *50 *5
North Carolina 30 10 56 90 10 *29 *0
North Dakota 112 52 358 415 *156 517 *0
Ohio 99 56 229 287 57 *217 *10
Oklahoma 44 24 74 202 35 *17 *0
Oregon 185 156 247 603 189 936 52
Pennsylvania 104 53 228 346 108 *129 *12
Rhode Island 87 63 127 238 81 *0 *0
South Carolina 94 75 118 101 158 *345 *0
South Dakota 78 51 159 *276 *61 187 *0
Tennessee 33 22 58 55 68 *0 *0
Texas 79 51 94 229 63 *68 *7
Utah 39 26 82 *121 86 *71 *21
Vermont 22 *18 *68 *0 *0 *0 *0
Virginia 57 24 102 160 49 *0 *0
Washington 80 49 129 284 91 139 29
West Virginia 207 182 474 546 *76 *0 *0
Wisconsin 90 43 221 461 70 284 *31
Wyoming 233 198 374 *547 323 *454 *0

1American Indian includes Alaskan Natives; Asian includes Pacific Islanders.
* Rate based on fewer than 10 observations.
Interpret data with caution. In these states, 30% or more of the information for commitment and/or race/ethnicity was imputed. Visit the EZACJRP methods section for more information about imputation.

Notes: This information is based on the state where the offense was committed. However, the state of offense is not always reported. Committed youth for whom state of offense was unknown are included in U.S. totals (3,613 in 2017). These instances are not evenly distributed across states. As such, users should exercise caution when examining state-level trends or comparing states. Visit the EZACJRP methods section for more information.

U.S. total includes a small number of offenders (1) who committed their offense in a U.S. Territory, but excludes youth in tribal facilities.

Committed youth are those held in residential placement as part of a court-ordered disposition. The commitment rate is the number of juvenile offenders in residential placement on October 25, 2017 per 100,000 juveniles age 10 through the upper age of original juvenile court jurisdiction in each state.

Minorities include blacks, Hispanics, American Indians/Alaskan Natives, Asians/Pacific Islanders, and those identified as other race.

To preserve the privacy of the juvenile residents, state cell counts have been rounded to the nearest multiple of three. Detail may not add to total because of rounding. Rates are based on rounded totals. More information on this rounding rule is available on the EZACJRP Web site.

[ Map version ]  [ CSV file ]

  • In all but 10 states, the commitment rate for black juvenile offenders exceeded the rate for other race/ethnicity groups.
  • Nationally, the ratio of the commitment rate for minorities to that for whites was 2.2 to 1.
  • In 34 states, the ratio between the minority-to-white commitment rate was above the national average. In 16 states, the minority-to-white commitment rate was more than 4 to 1.
  • In 9 states the ratio of commitment rates for minority and white youth was less than 2 to 1.

Internet citation: OJJDP Statistical Briefing Book. Online. Available: https://www.ojjdp.gov/ojstatbb/corrections/qa08612.asp?qaDate=2017. Released on October 31, 2019.

Data Source: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. Census of Juveniles in Residential Placement 2017 [machine-readable data files]. Washington, D.C.: OJJDP.

 

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