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Juveniles in Court
Case Rate Trends
Although person offense case rates were lower for females than for males, female case rates have increased more sharply since 1985.

Note: Rates are cases per 1,000 youth ages 10-upper age of juvenile court jurisdiction.

It is important to note that 2020 was the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, which may have impacted policies, procedures, and data collection activities regarding referrals to and processing of youth by juvenile courts. Additionally, stay-at-home orders and school closures likely impacted the volume and type of law-violating behavior by youth referred to juvenile court in 2020.

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  • The female person offense case rate grew steadily between 1985 and the late 1990s, increasing nearly 170% during the period. After a period of stability, the female person offense case rate again increased, reaching a peak in 2005. Since the 2005 peak, the female person offense case rate decreased 59% through 2020. Comparatively, the male rate increased 90% between 1985 and its 1995 peak, then generally declined. By 2020, the male person offense case rate was 64% below the 1995 peak.
  • From 2011 to 2020, the disparity in male-female person offense case rates stayed within a limited range, averaging 2.2 during the 10 year period, compared with a ratio of nearly 4 in the late 1980s.

Internet Citation: OJJDP Statistical Briefing Book. Online. Available:
https://www.ojjdp.gov/ojstatbb/court/JCSCR_Display.asp?ID=qa06241. January 10, 2023.


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