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Case Rate Trends
Although person offense case rates were lower for females than for males, female case rates have increased more sharply since 1985.

Note: Rates are cases per 1,000 youth ages 10-upper age of juvenile court jurisdiction.

The COVID-19 pandemic, which began in March 2020, may have impacted the policies, procedures, and data collection activities regarding referrals to and processing of youth by juvenile courts for an indeterminate period of time. Additionally, stay-at-home orders and school closures likely impacted the volume and type of law-violating behavior by youth referred to juvenile court.
  • The female person offense case rate grew steadily between 1985 and the late 1990s, increasing nearly 170% during the period. After a period of stability, the female person offense case rate again increased, reaching a peak in 2005. Since the 2005 peak, the female person offense case rate decreased 75% through 2021. Comparatively, the male rate increased 90% between 1985 and its 1995 peak, then generally declined. By 2021, the male person offense case rate was 67% below the 1995 peak.
  • From 2012 to 2021, the disparity in male-female person offense case rates stayed within a limited range, averaging 2.2 during the 10-year period, compared with a ratio of nearly 4 in the late 1980s.

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