U.S. Department of Justice, Office Of Justice Programs, Innovation - Partnerships - Safer Neighborhoods
Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), Serving Children, Families, and Communities

National Disproportionate Minority Contact Databook

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Updated on August 2017 to include data through 2014.

About the DMC Databook

What's new:

The August 2017 update introduced the following changes to the National DMC Databook:

  • The tables labeled “by race/ethnicity” and “by gender and race/ethnicity” now include national estimates of delinquency cases involving Hispanic youth. Estimates of delinquency cases involving Hispanic youth were developed by the National Center for Juvenile Justice through the National Juvenile Court Data Archive project. These tables replace the sample-based tables previously located under the “Subnational RRI’s” section (released in August 2016).
  • Estimates of juvenile arrests involving Hispanic youth are not available. Consequently, the arrest step has been removed from the “by race/ethnicity” tables as the race groups supported by national arrest estimates no longer align with the race/ethnicity groups available from national delinquency case estimates. Referral rates, therefore, now use the youth population as the denominator, rather than juvenile arrests.
  • Estimates of delinquency cases involving Hispanic youth go back to data year 2005. Thus, 2005 is the anchor point for the “by race/ethnicity” and “by gender and race/ethnicity” data tables. Conversely, 1990 remains the anchor point for data tables in the “by gender” section.

The National Disproportionate Minority Contact (DMC) Databook is designed to give users an understanding of the Relative Rate Index (RRI) and an assessment of the levels of disproportionate minority contact at various stages of juvenile justice system processing at the national level. New users should review the sections entitled "What is an RRI?" and "Constructing an RRI Matrix". The first briefly discusses the benefits in using an RRI Matrix to investigate disproportionate minority contact within a jurisdiction. The second discusses how an RRI Matrix can be prepared using available information and the compromises that at times need to occur. For a more detailed discussion of these topics, users are encouraged to review Chapter One of the online Disproportionate Minority Contact Technical Assistance Manual.

In the National DMC Databook, users can review the raw counts and rates that characterize the processing of delinquency cases by the juvenile justice system and then study the RRI Matrix that helps to pinpoint and quantify the levels of disparity introduced at various decision points with the system. It is hoped that users can develop a better understanding of the RRIs and can apply this understanding when studying the many other RRIs that are available for review in this data dissemination tool or the RRIs developed locally to capture the nature of disproportionate minority contact in their own communities.


Developed and maintained by the National Center for Juvenile Justice, with funding from the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice.