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Juvenile Population Characteristics
Living Arrangements
Q: How do the living arrangements of children vary by race?
A: In 2022, the majority of white children and Hispanic children lived in two-parent homes (75.6% and 67.5% respectively), compared with four in ten (43.0%) Black children.

Living arrangements of children by race/ethnicity, 1970-2022

Year Two parents:
White
Two parents:
Black
Two parents:
Hispanic*
Mother only:
White
Mother only:
Black
Mother only:
Hispanic*
Father only:
White
Father only:
Black
Father only:
Hispanic*
1970 89.5% 58.5% NA 7.8% 29.5% NA 0.9% 2.3% NA
1971 88.3% 54.4% NA 9.0% 32.6% NA 1.0% 1.7% NA
1972 87.9% 54.3% NA 9.5% 33.5% NA 1.0% 1.9% NA
1973 87.4% 51.5% NA 9.6% 37.6% NA 1.1% 2.1% NA
1974 86.7% 50.7% NA 10.4% 37.8% NA 1.2% 1.8% NA
1975 85.4% 49.4% NA 11.3% 40.9% NA 1.5% 1.8% NA
1976 85.2% 49.6% NA 11.8% 40.1% NA 1.2% 1.5% NA
1977 84.8% 46.8% NA 11.9% 41.7% NA 1.4% 1.4% NA
1978 83.8% 43.6% NA 12.6% 42.3% NA 1.5% 2.1% NA
1979 83.5% 43.4% NA 12.5% 41.9% NA 1.5% 2.1% NA
1980 82.7% 42.2% 75.4% 13.5% 43.9% 19.6% 1.6% 1.9% 1.5%
1981 82.3% 42.7% 70.3% 13.7% 43.3% 23.0% 1.8% 2.5% 2.4%
1982 80.8% 42.4% 69.1% 15.3% 47.2% 25.3% 1.9% 2.0% 1.5%
1983 81.0% 40.7% 68.5% 15.0% 51.1% 26.8% 2.0% 2.5% 1.8%
1984 81.0% 41.0% 70.2% 15.1% 50.2% 24.9% 2.1% 2.9% 2.0%
1985 80.0% 39.5% 67.9% 15.6% 51.0% 26.6% 2.4% 2.9% 2.2%
1986 79.9% 40.6% 66.5% 15.7% 50.6% 27.7% 2.5% 2.4% 2.7%
1987 79.1% 40.1% 65.5% 16.1% 50.4% 27.7% 2.6% 2.5% 2.8%
1988 78.9% 38.6% 66.3% 16.0% 51.1% 27.2% 2.9% 3.0% 3.0%
1989 79.6% 38.0% 67.0% 16.1% 51.1% 27.8% 2.7% 3.4% 2.7%
1990 79.0% 37.7% 66.8% 16.2% 51.2% 27.1% 3.0% 3.5% 2.9%
1991 78.5% 35.9% 66.3% 16.5% 54.0% 26.6% 3.0% 3.5% 3.2%
1992 77.4% 35.6% 64.8% 17.6% 53.8% 28.5% 3.3% 3.1% 3.7%
1993 77.2% 35.6% 64.5% 17.4% 54.0% 28.0% 3.5% 3.0% 3.8%
1994 76.2% 33.3% 63.4% 17.7% 53.4% 27.9% 3.1% 3.7% 3.9%
1995 75.8% 33.1% 62.9% 17.8% 52.0% 28.4% 3.4% 4.1% 4.2%
1996 74.7% 33.4% 62.2% 18.4% 53.0% 28.7% 3.8% 4.4% 3.7%
1997 74.6% 34.7% 64.1% 18.3% 51.8% 26.8% 4.2% 5.1% 4.2%
1998 74.0% 36.2% 63.6% 18.2% 51.1% 26.8% 4.6% 3.7% 4.4%
1999 74.4% 34.7% 63.4% 18.1% 51.6% 26.9% 4.4% 4.0% 4.5%
2000 75.3% 37.6% 65.1% 17.3% 49.0% 25.1% 4.3% 4.2% 4.4%
2001 75.2% 37.6% 65.2% 17.5% 48.1% 24.5% 4.3% 4.7% 4.6%
2002 74.5% 38.5% 65.1% 17.9% 48.1% 25.1% 4.5% 5.2% 5.0%
2003 74.8% 36.1% 64.6% 17.5% 50.8% 24.5% 4.5% 4.6% 5.5%
2004 74.3% 34.8% 64.6% 18.0% 50.4% 25.4% 4.4% 5.8% 5.3%
2005 73.5% 35.0% 64.7% 18.4% 50.2% 25.4% 4.7% 5.0% 4.8%
2006 73.8% 34.6% 65.9% 17.9% 51.2% 25.0% 4.6% 4.8% 4.1%
2007 76.8% 39.5% 69.9% 17.3% 50.2% 24.5% 3.2% 3.6% 2.1%
2008 76.0% 37.5% 69.7% 17.5% 51.1% 24.1% 3.6% 3.3% 2.4%
2009 75.8% 38.1% 68.7% 17.7% 50.2% 24.9% 3.4% 3.4% 2.5%
2010 74.9% 39.2% 67.0% 18.3% 49.7% 26.3% 3.5% 3.6% 2.7%
2011 74.5% 37.9% 66.4% 18.7% 51.0% 26.8% 3.7% 3.5% 2.8%
2012 73.8% 38.1% 65.7% 19.3% 50.9% 28.0% 4.0% 4.2% 3.1%
2013 74.3% 38.8% 65.1% 18.5% 50.5% 27.9% 4.0% 4.6% 3.2%
2014 74.1% 39.0% 64.9% 18.7% 50.8% 27.5% 3.9% 4.2% 3.1%
2015 74.9% 38.7% 67.0% 18.2% 49.4% 25.9% 3.7% 4.2% 3.0%
2016 74.3% 38.7% 67.2% 18.1% 51.5% 25.3% 4.2% 3.9% 3.8%
2017 74.3% 39.7% 66.9% 18.0% 48.5% 24.7% 4.5% 4.4% 4.4%
2018 74.6% 39.7% 67.0% 17.4% 48.1% 24.9% 4.4% 5.0% 4.0%
2019 75.5% 42.2% 68.0% 16.8% 45.7% 24.3% 4.4% 5.1% 4.2%
2020 75.8% 41.2% 67.9% 16.3% 46.3% 24.0% 4.5% 4.5% 4.1%
2021 74.8% 42.6% 67.5% 17.0% 44.8% 24.8% 4.8% 5.8% 4.3%
2022 75.6% 43.0% 67.5% 16.7% 45.6% 24.5% 4.6% 5.6% 4.3%

NA: Data available.
Note: * Persons of Hispanic ethnicity can be of any race; however, most are white. Race proportions include persons of Hispanic ethnicity.
The Current Population Survey methodology changed to more accurately reflect children’s coresidence with their parents. This change is reflected in the estimates beginning in 2007, where two parent homes include all homes in which a child lives with both parents, married or unmarried (biological, step or adoptive). For more information please read: Improvements to data collection about families in CPS 2007.

[ Graph version ]  [ CSV file ]

  • More than half (51.2%) of all Black children lived with one parent in 2022, compared with about one in five (21.3%) of white children.
  • Between 1980 and 2022, the proportion of children living in two-parent families declined for white youth (82.7% to 75.6%) and Hispanic youth (75.4% to 67.5%); for Black youth, the proportion of children living in two-parent families in 2022 (43.0%) was about the same as in 1980 (42.2%).
  • Between 1970 and 2022, the proportion of children living with their mothers in single-parent households increased from 7.8% to 16.7% for white youth and from 29.5% to 45.6% for Black youth. For children of Hispanic ethnicity, the proportion living with their mother in single-parent households increased from 19.6% in 1980 to 24.5% in 2022.

Internet citation: OJJDP Statistical Briefing Book. Online. Available: https://www.ojjdp.gov/ojstatbb/population/qa01202.asp?qaDate=2022. Released on January 10, 2023.

Data Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census. Current Population Survey - Families and Living Arrangements, Historical Tables. Table CH-2: "Living Arrangements of White Children Under 18 Years Old: 1960 to Present;" Table CH-3: "Living Arrangements of Black Children Under 18 Years Old: 1960 to Present;" Table CH-4: "Living Arrangements of Hispanic Children Under 18 Years Old: 1970 to Present." [Internet release date: November 2022]. Web-based data files available at: https://www.census.gov/data/tables/time-series/demo/families/children.html.

 

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