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Juvenile Population Characteristics
Living Arrangements
Q: Does the proportion of children living in poverty vary by family structure?
A: Children in single-parent families are more likely to live in poverty.

Poverty status of children by family structure, 2020

Living arrangement Children
under 18*
Percent below
poverty level
Percent of all children receiving
Food stamps Public assistance
All Types 72,901 14.4% 15.3% 2.5%
Two parents 51,334 7.9% 8.1% 1.0%
  Married 48,526 6.3% 7.0% 0.8%
  Unmarried 2,808 37.2% 26.2% 2.8%
Single parent 18,580 30.4% 33.6% 5.5%
  Mother only 15,310 33.7% 37.3% 6.7%
  Father only 3,270 15.3% 16.0% 0.3%
Neither parent** 2,986 27.8% 25.7% 9.2%

* Data are in thousands.
** Includes children living with other relatives and those living with non-relatives.
***The Current Population Survey methodology changed to more accurately reflect children’s coresidence with their parents. This change is reflected in the estimates beginning in 2007, where two parent homes include all homes in which a child lives with both parents, married or unmarried (biological, step or adoptive). For more information please read: Improvements to Demographic Household Data in the Current Population Survey: 2007.

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  • In 2020, 7.9% of children living with two parents lived below the poverty level, compared to 30.4% of children living with a single parent.
  • Children living with only their mothers in 2020 were more than twice as likely to live in poverty than those living with only their fathers (33.7% vs. 15.3%).
  • Overall, 2.5% of children in 2020 lived in households receiving public assistance and 15.3% lived in households receiving food stamps, but the proportions were greater for children living in single-mother families.

Internet citation: OJJDP Statistical Briefing Book. Online. Available: https://www.ojjdp.gov/ojstatbb/population/qa01203.asp?qaDate=2020. Released on April 16, 2021.

Data Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, America’s Families and Living Arrangements: Table C-8: "Poverty Status, Food Stamp Receipt, and Public Assistance for Children Under 18 Years." [Internet release date: December 2020]. Web-based data files available at: https://www2.census.gov/programs-surveys/demo/tables/families/2020/cps-2020/.


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