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Racial and Ethnic Fairness
While residential placement rates declined for all race groups since 1997, the placement rate for minority youth remained much higher than the rate for white youth.
The residential placement rate is the number of juvenile offenders in residential placement on the CJRP reference date per 100,000 juveniles age 10 through the upper age of original juvenile court jurisdiction. Rates exclude youth in tribal facilities.

*American Indian includes Alaskan Natives; Asian includes Pacific Islanders.

Minority group includes black, Hispanic, American Indian/Alaskan Native, Asian/Pacific Islander youth, and those identified as other race.

The ratio of rates compares the rates of each minority group to white youth. A ratio of 1.0 indicates statistical parity, i.e., the rates for the comparison groups are equal. For example, if white youth and minority youth were placed at the same rate, the ratio would be 1.0, indicating the rates for these groups are equal. When the ratio exceeds 1.0, the rate for the minority group exceeds the rate for white youth; when it is below 1.0, the rate for minority youth is less than the rate for white youth.

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  • Between 1997 and 2017, the residential placement rate declined the most for Asian youth (90%), followed by Hispanic (75%), black (60%), white (59%), and American Indian (52%) youth. Combined, the rate for minority youth declined declined 70% during this period.
  • Despite these declines, the placement rate for minority youth in 2017 was more than twice rate for white youth.
  • In 2017, the residential placement rate for American Indian youth was nearly three times that of white youth, up from a ratio of 2.4 in 1997.
  • The relative rate of residential placement for black youth compared to white youth remains the highest (4.6 times that of white youth in 2017).

  • See also: State-level residential placement rates by race.

Internet citation: OJJDP Statistical Briefing Book. Online. Available: https://www.ojjdp.gov/ojstatbb/special_topics/qa11801.asp?qaDate=2017. Released on April 23, 2019.

Data Source: Analysis of the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention's. Census of Juveniles in Residential Placement data files for the years 1997, 1999, 2001, 2003, 2006, 2007, 2010, 2011, 2013, 2015, and 2017.


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