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Racial and Ethnic Fairness
While residential placement rates declined for all race groups since 1997, the placement rate for minority youth remained much higher than the rate for white youth.

Juvenile residential placement rates by race/ethnicity, 1997-2017

Residential placement rate (per 100,000) Ratio of rates: relative to whites
Year White Minority Black Hispanic American
Indian*
Asian* Minority Black Hispanic American
Indian*
Asian*
1997 201 661 968 468 490 195 3.3 4.8 2.3 2.4 1.0
1999 208 630 937 435 542 178 3.0 4.5 2.1 2.6 0.9
2001 208 553 857 360 556 119 2.7 4.1 1.7 2.7 0.6
2003 189 488 742 335 468 110 2.6 3.9 1.8 2.5 0.6
2006 170 464 743 309 476 80 2.7 4.4 1.8 2.8 0.5
2007 157 436 714 284 416 71 2.8 4.5 1.8 2.6 0.5
2010 128 354 606 228 369 47 2.8 4.7 1.8 2.9 0.4
2011 112 306 520 202 361 35 2.7 4.6 1.8 3.2 0.3
2013 100 266 464 173 334 28 2.7 4.6 1.7 3.3 0.3
2015 86 233 433 142 261 23 2.7 5.0 1.7 3.0 0.3
2017 83 201 383 118 235 19 2.4 4.6 1.4 2.8 0.2

The residential placement rate is the number of juvenile offenders in residential placement on the CJRP reference date per 100,000 juveniles age 10 through the upper age of original juvenile court jurisdiction. Rates exclude youth in tribal facilities.

*American Indian includes Alaskan Natives; Asian includes Pacific Islanders.

Minority group includes black, Hispanic, American Indian/Alaskan Native, Asian/Pacific Islander youth, and those identified as other race.

The ratio of rates compares the rates of each minority group to white youth. A ratio of 1.0 indicates statistical parity, i.e., the rates for the comparison groups are equal. For example, if white youth and minority youth were placed at the same rate, the ratio would be 1.0, indicating the rates for these groups are equal. When the ratio exceeds 1.0, the rate for the minority group exceeds the rate for white youth; when it is below 1.0, the rate for minority youth is less than the rate for white youth.

  • Between 1997 and 2017, the residential placement rate declined the most for Asian youth (90%), followed by Hispanic (75%), black (60%), white (59%), and American Indian (52%) youth. Combined, the rate for minority youth declined declined 70% during this period.
  • Despite these declines, the placement rate for minority youth in 2017 was more than twice rate for white youth.
  • In 2017, the residential placement rate for American Indian youth was nearly three times that of white youth, up from a ratio of 2.4 in 1997.
  • The relative rate of residential placement for black youth compared to white youth remains the highest (4.6 times that of white youth in 2017).


  • See also: State-level residential placement rates by race.


Internet citation: OJJDP Statistical Briefing Book. Online. Available: https://www.ojjdp.gov/ojstatbb/special_topics/qa11801.asp?qaDate=2017. Released on April 23, 2019.

Data Source: Analysis of the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention's. Census of Juveniles in Residential Placement data files for the years 1997, 1999, 2001, 2003, 2006, 2007, 2010, 2011, 2013, 2015, and 2017.