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     Census of Juveniles in Residential Placement


In 1997, the U.S. Census Bureau, through an interagency agreement with the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), administered the Census of Juveniles in Residential Placement (CJRP) for the first time. CJRP replaced the Census of Public and Private Juvenile Detention, Correctional, and Shelter Facilities, also known as the Children in Custody census, which had been conducted since the early 1970s. The census typically takes place on the fourth Wednesday in October in odd numbered years. CJRP asks all juvenile residential facilities in the United States to describe each person younger than 21 assigned a bed in the facility on the census date as a result of a status or delinquency offense. Facilities report individual-level information on gender, date of birth, race, placement authority, most serious offense charged, court adjudication status, and admission date. CJRP does not capture data on youth in adult prisons or jails or those placed in facilities used exclusively for mental health or substance use treatment or for dependent children.

Goals and Objectives:

CJRP provides a detailed picture of juveniles in residential placement, including the demographics and legal attributes of each youth in a juvenile facility on the census date. The Juvenile Residential Facility Census (JRFC), the companion collection to CJRP conducted in alternating years, collects information about the facilities in which juvenile offenders are held. Together they provide the most comprehensive picture available of youth sanctioned to residential placement and the facilities and services the youth are provided. Specific objectives of CJRP include:

  • Establishing a comprehensive, manageable, and reliable statistical series covering juvenile offenders in residential placement.
  • Collecting individual information on each youth, including gender, date of birth, race, and most serious offense charged.
  • Collecting information on the youth's legal status, including court of jurisdiction (i.e., criminal court or juvenile court), adjudicatory status (i.e., pre- or post-adjudication), and the state that has jurisdiction over the juvenile.
  • Collecting information on admission dates to calculate the number of days since admission for each youth in residential placement and compare time spent in placement for different categories of youth.
  • Collecting some limited information on facility characteristics, including ownership and operation, facility type, and security.


OJJDP released Juveniles in Residential Placement, 2015. This bulletin provides information on the characteristics of youth held for delinquency and status offenses in public and private residential facilities in every state.

Publications and Products:

OJJDP supports the analysis and dissemination of its CJRP data through the National Juvenile Justice Data Analysis Program. This program produces statistical bulletins, FAQs, and a web-based data analysis tool with the CJRP data. The data are archived at the National Archive of Criminal Justice Data. Find more information about the CJRP design and methodology on OJJDP's Compendium of National Juvenile Justice Datasets.

Contact Information:

Benjamin Adams, Social Science Analyst | 202-616-3687

Nicole Adolph, Chief, Criminal Justice Branch | 301-763-1577
U.S. Census Bureau

Project Snapshot

Project Title: Census of Juveniles in Residential Placement

Agreement: Interagency Agreement with the U.S. Census Bureau

Agreement status: Active

Type of research: Data collection and analysis

Related topical page: corrections/detention

Location of research: National

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