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the Census of Juveniles in Residential Placement: 1997-2011


Glossary

Adjudication: [back to top]
Adjudication is the court process that determines (judges) if the juvenile committed the act with which he or she is charged. As used here the term "adjudicated" is analogous to "convicted" and indicates that the court concluded the juvenile committed the act.
Age: [back to top]
The juvenile’s age on the date of the census (last Wednesday in October) calculated from date of birth.
Facility self-classification: [back to top]
  • Detention Center: a short-term facility that provides temporary care in a physically restricting environment for juveniles in custody pending court disposition and, often, for juveniles who are adjudicated delinquent and awaiting disposition or placement elsewhere, or are awaiting transfer to another jurisdiction.
  • Shelter: a short-term facility that provides temporary care similar to that of a detention center, but in a physically unrestricting environment. Includes runaway/homeless shelters and other types of shelters.
  • Reception/Diagnostic Center: a short-term facility that screens persons committed by the courts and assigns them to appropriate correctional facilities.
  • Long-term secure facility: a specialized type of facility that provides strict confinement for its residents. Includes training schools, reformatories, and juvenile correctional facilities.
  • Ranch/Wilderness Camp: a long-term residential facility for persons whose behavior does not necessitate the strict confinement of a long-term secure facility, often allowing them greater contact with the community. Includes ranches, forestry camps, wilderness or marine programs, or farms.
  • Group Home: a long-term facility in which residents are allowed extensive contact with the community, such as attending school or holding a job. Includes halfway houses.
  • Boot Camp: a secure facility that operates like military basic training. There is emphasis on physical activity, drills, and manual labor. Strict rules and drill instructor tactics are designed to break down youth's resistance. Length of stay is generally longer than detention but shorter than most long-term commitments.
  • Other: includes facilities such as alternative schools and independent living, etc.
Facility type: [back to top]
Identifies whether the placement facility was publicly or privately owned/operated.
  • Public Facilities: Facilities operated by State or local government agencies in which the employees working daily in the facilities and directly with the residents are State or local government employees.
  • Private Facilities: Facilities operated by private non-profit or for-profit corporations or organizations in which the employees working daily in the facilities and directly with the residents are employees of that private corporation or organization.
  • Tribal Facilities: Facilities operated by American Indian Tribes.
Locks: [back to top]
  • Locks indicated: facility indicated that juveniles are restricted within the facility or its grounds by locked doors, gates, or fences some or all of the time.
  • No locks indicated: facility has not indicated that juveniles are restricted within the facility or its grounds by locked doors, gates, or fences; facilities that do not rely on locks for security are also known as staff secure.
  • Unknown
Most serious offense: [back to top]
  • Delinquent/criminal offense: An offense that is considered illegal for adults.
    • Person offenses: Offenses against persons as detailed below.
      • Aggravated assault: An actual, attempted or threatened physical attack on a person that 1) involves the use of a weapon of 2) causes serious physical harm. Includes attempted murder. (For assaults with less than serious injury without a weapon, see Simple assault.)
      • Criminal homicide: Causing the death of a person without legal justification. (For attempted murder/manslaughter, see Aggravated assault.)
      • Robbery: Actual or attempted unlawful taking of property in the direct possession of a person by force or threat of force. Includes purse snatching with force. (For purse snatching without force, see Theft.)
      • Simple assault: An actual, attempted or threatened physical attack on a person that causes less than serious physical harm without a weapon. Includes non-physical attacks causing fear of an attack.
      • Violent sexual assault: Actual or attempted sexual intercourse or sexual assaults against a person against her or his will by force or threat of force. Includes incest, sodomy, and sexual abuse by a minor against another minor. (See also Non-violent sex offense.)
      • Other person offenses: Person offenses not detailed above. Examples include: harassment, coercion, kidnapping, reckless endangerment, etc.
    • Property offenses: Offenses against property as detailed below.
      • Arson: Actual or attempted intentional damaging or destroying of property by fire or explosion, without the owner’s consent.
      • Auto theft: Actual or attempted unauthorized taking or use of a motor vehicle, intending to deprive the owner of it temporarily or permanently. Includes joyriding and grand theft auto.
      • Burglary: Actual or attempted unlawful entry or attempted entry of a building, structure, or vehicle with intent to commit larceny or another crime. Includes breaking and entering and household larceny.
      • Theft, non-household larceny: Actual or attempted unlawful taking or attempted taking of property (other than an automobile) from a person without force or deceit. Includes shoplifting and purse snatching without force. (For purse snatching with force, see Robbery. For theft of an automobile, see Auto theft. For household larceny, see Burglary. For theft using deceit, see Other property offenses.)
      • Other property offenses: Property offenses not detailed above. Examples include: vandalism, trespassing, selling stolen property, possession of burglar’s tools, fraud, etc.
    • Drug offenses: Offenses involving drugs or narcotics as detailed below.
      • Trafficking: Actual or attempted making, selling, or distributing of a controlled or illegal drug or substance.
      • Other drug-related offenses: Drug offenses other than trafficking. Examples include drug possession or use, possession of drug paraphernalia, visiting a place where drugs are found, etc.
    • Public order offenses: Offenses against the public order as detailed below.
      • Alcohol or drugs, driving under the influence: Driving or operating a motor vehicle while under the influence of alcohol or other drug or controlled substance.
      • Weapons: Actual or attempted illegal sale, distribution, manufacture, alteration, transportation, possession, or use of a deadly or dangerous weapon or accessory.
      • Other public order offenses: Public order offenses not detailed above. Examples include obstruction of justice (escape from confinement, perjury, contempt of court, etc), non-violent sex offenses, cruelty to animals, disorderly conduct, traffic offenses, etc.
    • Technical violations: Violations of probation, parole, or valid court orders; acts that disobey or go against the conditions of probation or parole. Examples include: failure to participate in a specific program, failure to appear for drug tests or meetings, and failure to pay restitution.
  • Status offense: A non-delinquent/non-criminal offense; an offense that is illegal for underage persons, but not for adults.
    • Curfew violation: Violation of an ordinance forbidding persons below a certain age from being in public places during set hours.
    • Incorrigible, ungovernable: Being beyond the control of parents, guardians, or custodians.
    • Running away: Leaving the custody and home of parents or guardians without permission and failing to return within a reasonable length of time. (For running away from a facility, see Obstruction of justice.)
    • Truancy: Violation of a compulsory school attendance law.
    • Underage drinking: Possession, use or consumption of alcohol by a minor.
    • Other status offense: Includes other offenses that are not illegal for adults not listed above. Examples include: underage smoking, unruliness in school, etc.
Placement status: [back to top]
  • Committed: Includes juveniles in placement in the facility as part of a court-ordered disposition. Committed juveniles may have been adjudicated and disposed in juvenile court or convicted and sentenced in criminal court.
  • Detained: Includes juveniles held prior to adjudication while awaiting an adjudication hearing in juvenile court, as well as juveniles held after adjudication while awaiting disposition or after adjudication while awaiting placement elsewhere. Also includes juveniles awaiting transfer to adult criminal court, or awaiting a hearing or trial in adult criminal court.
  • Diversion: Includes juveniles sent to the facility in lieu of adjudication as part of a diversion agreement.
Race/ethnicity: [back to top]
  • White, not of Hispanic origin: A person having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, North Africa, or the Middle East who is not of Hispanic origin.
  • Black, not of Hispanic origin: A person having origins in any of the black racial groups of Africa who is not of Hispanic origin.
  • Hispanic: A person of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American or other Spanish culture or origin, regardless of race.
  • American Indian or Alaskan Native: A person having origins in any of the original peoples of North America, and who maintains cultural identification through tribal affiliations or community recognition.
  • Asian or Pacific Islander: A person having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, the Indian Subcontinent, or the Pacific Islands. The Asian area includes, for example, China, India, Japan, and Korea. Pacific islands include, for example, Samoa, Guam, and Hawaii.
  • Other: Respondents were given the opportunity to identify race/ethnicity other than the categories listed above and to specify what the "other" race was. Examination of these entries, which account for less than 1% of the records, indicates that the majority were individuals with multiple race identification. It is not known what proportions of those included in the categories listed above were also of mixed racial/ethnic identity.
State: [back to top]
State where the juvenile committed the offense for which they are being held.