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References and Levels of Evidence

Introduction to School-Based Bullying Prevention I-Guide

  • 4 stars equals compelling evidenceCompelling Evidence:

    1. Smith, Peter K., Helen Cowie, Ragnar F. Olafsson, and Andy P.D. Liefooghe. 2002. “Definitions of Bullying: A Comparison of Terms Used, and Age and Gender Differences, in a Fourteen-Country International Comparison.” Child Development 73(4):1119–33.

    2. Polanin, Joshua R., Dorothy L. Espelage, and Therese D. Pigott. 2012. “A Meta-Analysis of School-Based Bullying Prevention Programs’ Effects on Bystander Intervention Behavior.” School Psychology Review 41(1):47–65.


  • What Do You Want To Change? (Establishing Clear Program Goals)

    Introduction

    • 2 stars equals minimum related evidenceMinimum Related Evidence:

      1. Simon, Patti, and Steve Olson. 2014. Building Capacity to Reduce Bullying: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

      2. Falconer, Matt, ed. 2008. Comprehensive School Counseling: A Guide to Comprehensive School Counseling Program Development. Hartford, CT: Connecticut State Board of Education.

      3. Bryson, J. M., and F. K. Alston. 1996. Creating and Implementing Your Strategic Plan: A Workbook for Public and Nonprofit Organizations. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.


    • Develop a clear definition of bullying so that everyone has the same understanding of the problem.

      • 4 stars equals compelling evidenceCompelling Evidence:

        1. Simon, Patti, and Steve Olson. 2014. Building Capacity to Reduce Bullying: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

        2. Gladden, R.M., A. M. Vivolo-Kantor, M. E. Hamburger, and C. D. Lumpkin. 2014. Bullying Surveillance among Youths: Uniform Definitions for Public Health and Recommended Data Elements, Version 1.0. Atlanta, GA: National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and U.S. Department of Education.

        3. U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. “StopBullying.gov: Policies and Laws.” Accessed April 15, 2015: http://www.stopbullying.gov/laws/index.html

        4. Limber, Susan P., Maury Nation, Allison F. Tracy, Gary B. Melton, and Vicki Flerx. 2004. “Implementation of the Olweus Bullying Prevention Programme in the Southeastern United States.” In P. K. Smith, D. Pepler, and K. Rigby (eds.). Bullying in Schools: How Successful Can Interventions Be? Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press.

        5. Bell, Christopher D., Katherine A. Raczynski, and Arthur M. Horne. 2010. “Bully Busters Abbreviated: Evaluation of a Group-Based Bully Intervention and Prevention Program.” Group Dynamics Theory, Research, and Practice 14(3):257–67.

        6. Menard, Scott, and Jennifer Grotpeter. 2014. “Evaluation of Bully-Proofing Your School as an Elementary School Antibullying Intervention.” Journal of School Violence 13(2):188–209.


      • Set program goals to determine which actions to take to reduce bullying and how success will be measured.

        • 2 stars equals minimum related evidenceMinimum Related Evidence:

          1. Richardson, Joan. 2007. “Work Smart, Not Harder: SMART Goals Keep Key Objectives in Focus.” Tools for School 11(2):1–7.


        • Develop clear policies about acceptable student behavior.

          • 4 stars equals compelling evidenceCompelling Evidence:

            1. U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. “StopBullying.gov: Set Policies & Rules.” Accessed April 15, 2015: http://www.stopbullying.gov/prevention/at-school/rules/index.html

            2. Whitted, Kathryn S., and David R. Dupper. 2005. “Best Practices for Preventing or Reducing Bullying in Schools.” Children & Schools 27(3):167–175.

            3. Olweus, Dan. 1997. “Bully/Victim Problems in School: Facts and Intervention.” European Journal of Psychology of Education 12(4):495–510.


          • What's Going On? (Conducting a Needs Assessment)

            Compile a range of information from different perspectives.

            • <3 stars equals reasonable evidenceReasonable Evidence:

              1. Bauer, Nerissa S., Paula Lozano, and Frederick P. Rivara. 2007. “The Effectiveness of the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program in Public Middle Schools: A Controlled Trial.” Journal of Adolescent Health 40(3):266–274.

              2. PREVNet. 2015. “Assessment Tool.” Accessed April 1, 2015: http://www.prevnet.ca/resources/bullying-prevention-facts-and-tools-for-schools


            • Choose the right needs assessment for your school.

              • 2 stars equals minimum related evidenceMinimum Related Evidence:

                1. Simon, Patti, and Steve Olson. 2014. Building Capacity to Reduce Bullying: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

                2. Falconer, Matt, ed. 2008. Comprehensive School Counseling: A Guide to Comprehensive School Counseling Program Development. Hartford, CT: Connecticut State Board of Education.


              • Use information from needs assessments in other ways.

                • 4 stars equals compelling evidenceCompelling Evidence:

                  1. U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. “StopBullying.gov: Assess Bullying.” Accessed April 1, 2015:http://www.stopbullying.gov/prevention/at-school/assess-bullying/index.html

                  2. Whitted, Kathryn S., and David R. Dupper. 2005. “Best Practices for Preventing or Reducing Bullying in Schools.” Children & Schools 27 (3): 167–175.

                  3. Menard, Scott, and Jennifer K. Grotpeter. 2014. “Evaluation of Bully-Proofing Your School as an Elementary School Antibullying Intervention.” Journal of School Violence 13(2):188–209.

                  4. Newman-Carlson, Dawn, and Arthur M. Horne. 2004. “Bully Busters: A Psychoeducational Intervention for Reducing Bullying Behavior in Middle School Students.” Journal of Counseling & Development 82(3):259–267.

                  5. Kärnä, Antti, Marinus Voeten, Todd D. Little, Elisa Poskiparta, Anne Kaljonen, and Christina Salmivalli. 2011. “A Large-Scale Evaluation of the KiVa Antibullying Program: Grades 4–6.” Child Development 82(1):311–30.


                  • <3 stars equals reasonable evidenceReasonable Evidence:

                    1. Bauer, Nerissa S., Paula Lozano, and Frederick P. Rivara. 2007. “The Effectiveness of the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program in Public Middle Schools: A Controlled Trial.” Journal of Adolescent Health 40(3):266–274.

                    2. PREVNet. 2015. “Assessment Tool.” Accessed April 1, 2015: http://www.prevnet.ca/resources/bullying-prevention-facts-and-tools-for-schools


                  • Recognize the limitations of assessments.

                    • 2 stars equals minimum related evidenceMinimum Related Evidence:

                      1. Espelage, Dorthy L., and Susan M. Swearer. 2011.Bullying in North American Schools. 2nd. ed. New York: Routledge


                    • Do Your Homework (Doing Supportive Research)

                      Understand school-based bullying in order to properly frame and address the issue.

                      • 2 stars equals minimum related evidenceMinimum Related Evidence:

                        1. Juvonen, Jaana, and Sandra Graham. 2014. “Bullying in Schools: The Power of Bullies and the Plight of Victims.” Annual Review of Psychology 65:159–85.


                      • Search for evidence-based bullying programs on evidence-based clearinghouses.

                        • N/A

                          1. No references.


                        • Determine if an evidence-based program "fits" the needs and available resources of a school or community.

                          • 4 stars equals compelling evidenceCompelling Evidence:

                            1. Greenberg, Mark T., Celene E. Domitrovich, Patricia A. Graczyk, and Joseph E. Zins. 2005. The Study of Implementation in School-Based Preventive Interventions: Theory, Research, and Practice (Vol. 3). Rockville, MD: Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Mental Health Services, p iii.

                            2. Prochaska, James O., Kerry E. Evers, Janice M. Prochaska, Deborah Van Marter, and Janet L. Johnson. 2007. “Efficacy and Effectiveness Trials: Examples from Smoking Cessation and Bullying Prevention.” Journal of Health Psychology 12(1):170-8.

                            3. Beets, Michael W., Brian R. Flay, Samuel Vuchinich, Frank J. Snyder, Alan C. Acock, Kin–Kit Li, Kate Burns, Isaac J. Washburn, and Joseph A. Durlak. 2009. “Use of a Social and Character Development Program to Prevent Substance Use, Violent Behaviors, and Sexual Activity among Elementary School Students in Hawaii.” American Journal of Public Health 99(8):1–8.

                            4. Li, Kin–Kit, Isaac J. Washburn, David Lane DuBois, Samuel Vuchinich, Peter Ji, Vanessa Brechling, Joseph Day, Michael W. Beets, Alan C. Acock, Michael Berbaum, Frank J. Snyder, and Brian R. Flay. 2011. “Effects of the Positive Action Program on Problem Behaviors in Elementary School Students: A Matched-Pair Randomized Control Trial in Chicago.” Psychology & Health 26(2):187–204

                            5. Bradshaw, Catherine, Mary Mitchell, and Philip Leaf. 2010. “Examining the Effects of Schoolwide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports on Student Outcomes.” Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions 12(3):133–48.

                            6. Evers, Kerry E., James O. Prochaska, Deborah F. Van Marter, Janet L. Johnson, and Janice M. Prochaska. 2007. “Transtheoretical-Based Bullying Prevention Effectiveness Trials in Middle Schools and High Schools.” Educational Research 49(4):397–414.


                          • Search other sources of information to find out more on bullying.

                            • 4 stars equals compelling evidenceCompelling Evidence:

                              1. Kärnä, Antti, Marinus Voeten, Todd D. Little, Elisa Poskiparta, Erkki Alanen, and Christina Salmivalli. 2011. “Going to Scale: A Nonrandomized Nationwide Trial of the KiVa Antibullying Program for Grades 1–9.” Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 79(6):796–805.


                            • Bring in Reinforcements (Getting Stakeholder Buy-in)

                              Find a program champion to help secure support and provide other help.

                              • 4 stars equals compelling evidenceCompelling Evidence:

                                1. Mihalic, Sharon, Katherine Irwin, Abigail Fagan, Diane Ballard, and Delbert Elliott. 2004. Successful Program Implementation: Lessons from Blueprints. Washington, D.C.: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, U.S. Department of Justice.

                                2. Leadbeater, Bonnie J., Emilie Gladstone, Rachel S. Yeung Thompson, Paweena Sukhawathanakul, and Tracy Desjardins. 2012. “Getting Started: Assimilatory Processes of Uptake of Mental Health Promotion and Primary Prevention Programmes in Elementary Schools.” Advances in School Mental Health Promotion 5(4):258–76.


                              • Establish an implementation team that can help secure support and design an implementation plan.

                                • 4 stars equals compelling evidenceCompelling Evidence:

                                  1. Melton, Gary B., Susan P. Limber, Vicki Flerx, Maury Nation, Wayne Osgood, Jeff Chambers, Scott Henggeler, Phillippe Cunningham, and Dan Olweus. 1998. Violence Among Rural Youth: A Final Report to the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. Washington, D.C.: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, U.S. Department of Justice.

                                  2. Kärnä, Antti, Marinus Voeten, Todd D. Little, Elisa Poskiparta, Erkki Alanen, and Christina Salmivalli. 2011. “Going to scale: A Nonrandomized Nationwide Trial of the KiVa Antibullying Program for Grades 1–9.” Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 79(6):796–805.


                                • Communicate to school leadership the importance of implementing bullying prevention programs.

                                  • 4 stars equals compelling evidenceCompelling Evidence:

                                    1. Menard, Scott, Jennifer Grotpeter, Daniella Gianola, and Maura O’Neal. 2008. Evaluation of Bullyproofing Your School. Washington, D.C.: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, U.S. Department of Justice.


                                  • Work with teachers and school staff to recognize the value of bullying prevention and how it can be integrated into current teaching practice.

                                    • 4 stars equals compelling evidenceCompelling Evidence:

                                      1. Leadbeater, Bonnie J., Emilie Gladstone, Rachel S. Yeung Thompson, Paweena Sukhawathanakul, and Tracy Desjardins. 2012. “Getting Started: Assimilatory Processes of Uptake of Mental Health Promotion and Primary Prevention Programmes in Elementary Schools.” Advances in School Mental Health Promotion 5(4):258–76.

                                      2. Farrington, David P., and Maria M. Ttofi. 2010. “School-Based Program to Reduce Bullying and Victimization.” Campbell Systematic Reviews 2009:6.

                                      3. Bradshaw, Catherine, Mary Mitchell, and Philip Leaf. 2010. “Examining the Effects of Schoolwide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports on Student Outcomes.” Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions 12(3):133-148.

                                      4. Bradshaw, Catherine, Tracy Evian Waasdorp, Lindsey M. O’Brennan, and Michaela Gulemetova. 2011. Findings from the National Education Association’s Nationwide Study of Bullying: Teachers’ and Education Support Professionals’ Perspectives. Washington, D.C.: National Education Association.

                                      5. Committee for Children. 2005. Steps to Respect Program Guide: Review of Research. Seattle, Washington: Committee for Children.


                                    • Provide opportunities for input from students and parents.

                                      • 4 stars equals compelling evidenceCompelling Evidence:

                                        1. London, Rebecca A., Nora Mallonee, Katie Stokes-Guinan, and Lisa Westrich. 2010. Playworks Implementation in Eight Bay Area Elementary Schools: Final Report. Stanford, CA: John W. Gardner Center.

                                        2. Kärnä, Antti, Marinus Voeten, Todd D. Little, Elisa Poskiparta, Anne Kaljonen, and Christina Salmivalli. 2011. “A Large-Scale Evaluation of the KiVa Antibullying Program: Grades 4–6.” Child Development 82 (1): 311–30.

                                        3. Johnson, Janet L., Deborah F. Van Marter, Sharon J. Dyment, Kerry E. Evers, Janice M. Prochaska, and James O. Prochaska. 2005. Elementary School Bullying (ESB): Effectiveness Trial Data Analysis Report. West Kingston, RI: Pro Change Behavior Systems, Inc.

                                        4. Tsiantis, Alkis Constantine J., Ion N. Beratis, Eva M. Syngelaki, Anna Stefanakou, Charisios Asimopoulos, Georgios D. Sideridis, and John Tsiantis. 2013. “The Effects of a Clinical Prevention Program on Bullying, Victimization, and Attitudes toward School of Elementary School Students.” Behavioral Disorders 38(4):243–57.


                                      • What Sets You Apart? (Identifying Specific Jurisdictional Issues)

                                        Research and understand applicable state bullying laws and policies.

                                        • 4 stars equals compelling evidenceCompelling Evidence:

                                          1. Menard, Scott, and Jennifer K. Grotpeter. 2014. “Evaluation of Bully-Proofing Your School as an Elementary School Antibullying Intervention.” Journal of School Violence 13(2):188–209.


                                        • Consider the impact of setting and different bullying values on implementation.

                                          • 4 stars equals compelling evidenceCompelling Evidence:

                                            1. McCracken, J. David, and Jeff David T. Barcinas. “Differences Between Rural and Urban Schools, Student Characteristics, and Student Aspirations in Ohio.” Journal of Research in Rural Education 7 (2): 29–40.

                                            2. Li, Kin-Kit, Issac Washburn, David L. DuBois, Samuel Vuchinich, Peter Ji, Vanessa Brechling, Joesph Day, Michael W. Beets, Alan C. Acock, Michael Berbaum, Frank Snyder, Brian R. Flay. 2011. “Effects of the Positive Action Programme on Problem Behaviors in Elementary School Students: A Matched-Pair, Randomized Control Trial in Chicago.” Psychology & Health 26(2):187–204.

                                            3. Bauer, Nerissa S., Paul Lozano, Frederick Rivara. (2007). “The Effectiveness of the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program in Public Middle Schools: A Controlled Trial.” Journal of Adolescent Health 40 (3): 266-74.

                                            4. Frey, Karin S., Miriam K. Hirschstein, and Leihua V. Edstrom. 2009. “Observed Reductions in School Bullying, Nonbullying Aggression, and Destructive Bystander Behavior: A Longitudinal evaluation.” Journal of Educational Psychology 101(2):466–481.

                                            5. Ayers, Stephanie L., M. Alex Wagaman, Jennider Mullins Gelger, Monica Bermudez-Parsai, and E.C. Hedberg. 2012. “Examining School-Based Bullying Interventions Using Multilevel Discrete Time Hazard Modeling.” Prevention Science 13(5):539–550.

                                            6. Menard, Scott, and Jennifer K. Grotpeter. 2014. “Evaluation of Bully-Proofing Your School as an Elementary School Antibullying Intervention.” Journal of School Violence 13(2):188–209.


                                          • Take into account your students.

                                            • 4 stars equals compelling evidenceCompelling Evidence:

                                              1. Low, Sabina, Mark J. Van Ryzin, Eric C. Brown, Brian H. Smith, Kevin P. Haggerty. 2014. “Engagement Matters: Lessons from Assessing Classroom Implementation of Steps to Respect: A Bullying Prevention Program Over a One-Year Period.” Prevention Science 15(2):165–76.

                                              2. Berlin, Robert, and Darlene J. Ruscitti. 2011. Best Practices in Bullying Prevention and Intervention. Wheaton, IL: DuPage County Regional Office of Education and State’s Attorney’s Office.

                                              3. Horner, Robert H., George Sugai, Keith Smolkowski, Jean Nakasato, Anne Todd, Jody Esperanza. (2009). “A Randomized, Wait-List Controlled Effectiveness Trial Assessing School-Wide Positive Behavior Support in Elementary Schools.” Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions 11(3):133-144

                                              4. Horner, Robert, George Sugai, Don Kincaid, Heather George, Timothy Lewis, Lucille Eber, Susan Barrett, and Bob Algozzine. 2012. What Does it Cost to Implement School-wise PBIS? Accessed November 3, 2014. http://www.pbis.org/common/cms/files/pbisresources/20120802_WhatDoesItCostToImplementSWPBIS.pdf


                                            • How Will You Pay For It? (Procuring Funding)

                                              Determine the start-up costs to begin the implementation process, as well as the on-going costs to continue to run the program.

                                              • 4 stars equals compelling evidenceCompelling Evidence:

                                                1. Leadbeater, Bonnie, and Paweena Sukhawathanakul. 2011. “Multicomponent Programs for Reducing Peer Victimization in Early Elementary School: A Longitudinal Evaluation of the WITS Primary Program.” Journal of Community Psychology 39(5):606–20.


                                              • Search for funding opportunities that can support the initial implementation of the program.

                                                • 2 stars equals minimum related evidenceMinimum Related Evidence:

                                                  1. National Endowment for the Arts Foundation. “Special Grants to Educators.” Accessed August 26, 2015: http://www.neafoundation.org/pages/grants-to-educators/


                                                • Think about the funding necessary to continue the program, once the initial funding stops.

                                                  • 2 stars equals minimum related evidenceMinimum Related Evidence:

                                                    1. Fixsen, Dean L, and Karen A. Blasé. 2009. Implementation: The Missing Link Between Research and Practice. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina, National Implementation Research Network.

                                                    2. Elias, Maurice J., Joseph E. Zins, Patricia A. Graczyk, and Roger P. Weissberg. 2003. “Implementation, Sustainability, and Scaling Up of Social-Emotional and Academic Innovations in Public Schools.” School Psychology Review 32(3):303–19.


                                                  • Train Your Team (Providing Program Training)

                                                    Introduction.

                                                    • 4 stars equals compelling evidenceCompelling Evidence:

                                                      1. Farrington, David P., and Maria M. Ttofi. 2010. “School-Based Program to Reduce Bullying and Victimization.” Campbell Systematic Reviews 2009:6.


                                                    • Research the amount of training required to implement a program.

                                                      • 4 stars equals compelling evidenceCompelling Evidence:

                                                        1. Menard, Scott, Jennifer Grotpeter, Danielle Gianola, Maura O’Neal. (2008). Evaluation of Bully-Proofing Your School: Final Report. Washington, DC: Office Of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, U.S. Department of Justice.

                                                        2. Bradhsaw, Catherine P., Mary Mitchell, Philip Leaf. (2010). “Examining the effects of Schoolwide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports on Student Outcomes. Results from a Randomized Controlled Effectiveness Trial in Elementary Schools.” Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions 12(3):133-148

                                                        3. Committee for Children. 2015. “Second Step: Bullying Prevention Unit.” Accessed September 30, 2015: http://www.cfchildren.org/bullying-prevention#stafftraining

                                                        4. Evers, Kerry E., James O. Prochaska, Deborah F. Van Marter, Janet L. Johnson, and Janice M. Prochaska. 2007. “Transtheoretical-Based Bullying Prevention Effectiveness Trials in Middle Schools and High Schools.” Educational Research 49(4):397–414.

                                                        5. Sukhawathanakul, Paweena, Bonnie J. Leadbeater, and Lindsay Vine. 2013. Promoting Program Uptake in Schools: Insights from the WITS Peer Victimization Prevention Program. Victoria, British Columbia: Research to Practice Network.


                                                      • Select which school staff members will be involved in training sessions.

                                                        • 4 stars equals compelling evidenceCompelling Evidence:

                                                          1. Bradhsaw, Catherine P., Mary Mitchell, Philip Leaf. (2010). “Examining the effects of Schoolwide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports on Student Outcomes. Results from a Randomized Controlled Effectiveness Trial in Elementary Schools.” Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions 12(3):133-48

                                                          2. Beets, Michael W., Brian R. Flay, Samuel Vuchinich, Frank J. Snyder, Alan C. Acock, Kin–Kit Li, Kate Burns, Isaac J. Washburn, and Joseph A. Durlak. 2009. “Use of a Social and Character Development Program to Prevent Substance Use, Violent Behaviors, and Sexual Activity Among Elementary School Students in Hawaii.” American Journal of Public Health 99(8):1–8.


                                                        • Schedule program training to fit everyone's schedule, when possible.

                                                          • 4 stars equals compelling evidenceCompelling Evidence:

                                                            1. Low, Sabina, Mark J. Van Ryzin, Eric C. Brown, Brian H. Smith, and Kevin P. Haggerty. 2014. “Engagement Matters: Lessons from Assessing Classroom Implementation of Steps to Respect: A Bullying Prevention Program Over a One-Year Period.” Prevention Science 15(2):165–76.

                                                            2. London, Rebecca A., Nora Mallonee, Katie Stokes-Guinan, and Lisa Westrich. 2010. Playworks Implementation in Eight Bay Area Elementary Schools: Final Report. Stanford, CA: John W. Gardner Center.


                                                          • To Adapt or Not to Adapt (Addressing Adaptation as Needed)

                                                            Introduction.

                                                            • 2 stars equals minimum related evidenceMinimum Related Evidence:

                                                              1. Stevens, V., I. De Bourdeauduhij, and P. Van Oost. 2001. “Anti-Bullying Interventions at School: Aspects of Programme Adaptation and Critical Issues for Further Programme Development. Health Promotion International 16(2):155-167.

                                                              2. Elliot, D. S., and Sharon Mihalic. 2004. “Issues in Disseminating and Replicating Effective Prevention Programs.” Prevention Science 5(1):47-53.


                                                            • Identify the core elements that are linked to program success.

                                                              • 4 stars equals compelling evidenceCompelling Evidence:

                                                                1. London, Rebecca A., Nora Mallonee, Katie Stokes-Guinan, and Lisa Westrich. 2010. Playworks Implementation in Eight Bay Area Elementary Schools: Final Report. Stanford, CA: John W. Gardner Center.

                                                                2. Farrington, David P., and Maria M. Ttofi. 2010. “School-Based Program to Reduce Bullying and Victimization.” Campbell Systematic Reviews 2009:6. http://campbellcollaboration.org/lib/download/718/

                                                                3. Menard, Scott, Jennifer Grotpeter, Daniella Gianola, and Maura O’Neal. 2008. Evaluation of Bullyproofing Your School. Washington, D.C.: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, U.S. Department of Justice.


                                                              • Determine if the program fits the specific needs and context of a school and figure out what may need to be modified.

                                                                • 4 stars equals compelling evidenceCompelling Evidence:

                                                                  1. Limber, S.P., Maury Nation, Allison J. Tracy, Gary B. Melton and Vicki Flerx. 2004. “Implementation of the Olweus Bullying Prevention Programme in the Southeastern United States.” In P. K. Smith, D. Pepler, and K. Rigby (eds.). Bullying in Schools: How Successful can Interventions Be? Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press.

                                                                  2. Karna, Antti, Marinus Voeten, Todd Little, Elisa Poskiparta, Erkki Alanen, Christina Salmivalli. (2011). “Going to Scale: A Nonrandomized Nationwide Trial of the KiVa Anti-Bullying Program for Grades 1-9.” Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 76(6):796-805.


                                                                • It's a Speed Bump, Not a Roadblock (Handling Unanticipated Problems or Setbacks)

                                                                  Understand and prepare for possible setbacks.

                                                                  • 4 stars equals compelling evidenceCompelling Evidence:

                                                                    1. Menard, Scott, Jennifer Grotpeter, Daniella Gianola, and Maura O’Neal. 2008. Evaluation of Bullyproofing Your School. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice.

                                                                    2. KiVa Koulu Web site. 2011a. http://www.kivaprogram.net/

                                                                    3. Li, Kin–Kit, Isaac J. Washburn, David Lane DuBois, Samuel Vuchinich, Peter Ji, Vanessa Brechling, Joseph Day, Michael W. Beets, Alan C. Acock, Michael Berbaum, Frank J. Snyder, and Brian R. Flay. 2011. “Effects of the Positive Action Program on Problem Behaviors in Elementary School Students: A Matched-Pair Randomized Control Trial in Chicago.” Psychology & Health 26(2):187–204.

                                                                    4. Forman, Susan G., S. Serene Olin, Kimberly Eaton Hoagwood, Maura Crowe, and Noa Saka. 2009. “Evidence-based Interventions in Schools: Developers’ Views of Implementation Barriers and Facilitators.” School Mental Health 1(1):26–36.

                                                                    5. Evers, Kerry E., James O. Prochaska, Deborah F. Van Marter, Janet L. Johnson, and Janice M. Prochaska. 2007. Transtheoretical-based Bullying Prevention Effectiveness Trials in Middle Schools and High Schools.” Educational Research 49(4):397–414.

                                                                    6. Prochaska, James O., Kerry E. Evers, Janice M. Prochaska, Deborah Van Mater, and Janet L. Johnson. 2007. “Efficacy and Effectiveness Trials: Examples from Smoking Cessation and Bullying Prevention.” Journal of Health Psychology 12(1):170–8.

                                                                    7. London, Rebecca A., Sebastian Castrechini, Katie Stokes-Guinan, Lisa Westrich, Martha Bleeker, and Susanne James-Burdumy. 2013. Playworks Implementation in 17 Schools from 6 U.S. Cities. Princeton, NJ: Robert Wood Johnson Foundation.


                                                                  • Prepare for unexpected setbacks.

                                                                    • 4 stars equals compelling evidenceCompelling Evidence:

                                                                      1. Bedell, Ruth and Arthur M. Horne. 2005. “Bully Prevention in Schools: A United States Experience.” Journal of Social Sciences 8: 59–69.

                                                                      2. Rahey, Leila and Wendy Craig. (2002). “Evaluation of An Ecological Program to Reduce Bullying in Schools.” Canadian Journal of Counseling 36(4):281-96

                                                                      3. Horner, Robert H., George Sugai, Keith Smolkowski, Lucille Eber, Jean Nakasato, Anne W. Todd, and Jody Esperanza. 2009. “A Randomized, Wait-List Controlled Effectiveness Trial Assessing School-Wide Positive Behavior Support in Elementary Schools.” Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions 11(3):133–44.

                                                                      4. Li, Kin–Kit, Isaac J. Washburn, David Lane DuBois, Samuel Vuchinich, Peter Ji, Vanessa Brechling, Joseph Day, Michael W. Beets, Alan C. Acock, Michael Berbaum, Frank J. Snyder, and Brian R. Flay. 2011. “Effects of the Positive Action Program on Problem Behaviors in Elementary School Students: A Matched-Pair Randomized Control Trial in Chicago.” Psychology & Health 26(2):187–204


                                                                    • Keep It Going (Ensuring Long-Term Sustainability)

                                                                      Start to think about how much time and resources will be allocated toward sustaining a program at the beginning of the implementation process.

                                                                      • 4 stars equals compelling evidenceCompelling Evidence:

                                                                        1. Fixsen, Dean L, and Karen A. Blasé. 2009. Implementation: The Missing Link Between Research and Practice. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina, National Implementation Research Network.

                                                                        2. Greenberg, Mark T., Celene E. Domitrovich, Patricia A. Graczyk, and Joseph E. Zins. 2005. The Study of implementation in School-Based Preventive Interventions: Theory, Research, and Practice (Vol. 3). Rockville, MD: Center for Mental Health Services, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

                                                                        3. Hoglund, Wendy, Naheed Hosan, and Bonnie Leadbeater. 2012. “Using Your WITS: A 6-Year Follow-Up of a Peer Victimization Prevention Program.” School Psychology Review 41(2):193–214.

                                                                        4. Elliot, D.S. and Sharon Mihalic. 2004. “Issues in Disseminating and Replicating Effective Prevention Programs.” Prevention Science 5(1):47-53.

                                                                        5. Bradshaw, Catherine, Mary Mitchell, and Philip Leaf. 2010. “Examining the Effects of Schoolwide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports on Student Outcomes.” Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions 12(3):133-48.


                                                                      • Assess efforts to reduce school-based bullying on a regular basis.

                                                                        • 4 stars equals compelling evidenceCompelling Evidence:

                                                                          1. Leadbeater, Bonnie, and Paweena Sukhawathanakul. 2011. “Multicomponent Programs for Reducing Peer Victimization in Early Elementary School: A Longitudinal Evaluation of the WITS Primary Program.” Journal of Community Psychology 39(5):606–20.

                                                                          2. Menard, Scott, and Jennifer K. Grotpeter. 2014. “Evaluation of Bully-Proofing Your School as an Elementary School Antibullying Intervention.” Journal of School Violence 13(2):188–209.


                                                                        • Monitor which elements of the program are being implemented and how the staff and students perceive the intervention efforts.

                                                                          • <4 stars equals compelling evidenceCompelling Evidence:

                                                                            1. Frey, Karin S., Miriam K. Hirschstein, Leihua Van Schoiack–Edstrom, and Jennie L. Snell. 2009. “Observed Reductions in School Bullying, Nonbullying Aggression, and Destructive Bystander Behavior: A Longitudinal Evaluation.” Journal of Educational Psychology 101(2):466–81.

                                                                            2. London, Rebecca A., Nora Mallonee, Katie Stokes-Guinan, and Lisa Westrich. 2010. Playworks Implementation in Eight Bay Area Elementary Schools: Final Report. Stanford, CA: John W. Gardner Center.

                                                                            3. Bradshaw, Catherine, Mary Mitchell, and Philip Leaf. 2010. “Examining the Effects of Schoolwide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports on Student Outcomes.” Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions 12(3):133-48.


                                                                          • Refresh teachers and school staffs' skills and knowledge about the program when programs are implemented over a number of years.

                                                                            • 4 stars equals compelling evidenceCompelling Evidence:

                                                                              1. Beets, M.W., Flay, B.R., Vuchinich, S., Snyder, F.J., Acock, A., Li, K., Burns, K., Washburn, I.J. & Durlak, J. 2009. “Preventing Substance Use, Violent Behavior, and Sexual Activity among Elementary Students: Effects of the Positive Action Program Hawaii.” American Journal of Public Health 99(8):1438-45.

                                                                              2. Hirschstein, M. K., Edstorm, L. V. S., Frey, K. S., Snell, J. L., and MacKenzie, E. P. 2007. Walking the Talk in Bullying Prevetion: Teacher Implementation Variables Related to Initial Impact of the Steps to Respect Program. School Psychology Review, 36(1):3-21.

                                                                              3. KiVa. 2011. “KiVa Program in a Nutshell.” Retrieved from: www.kivakoulu.fi Horner, R. H., Sugai, G., Smolkowiski, K., Eber, L., Nakasato, J., Todd, A. W., and Esperanza, J. 2009. “A Randomized Wait-List Controlled Effectiveness Trial Assessing School-Wide Positive Behavior Support in Elementary Schools.” Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions 11(3):133-44.


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1Minimum standards for review: The program must be evaluated with at least one randomized field experiment or a quasi-experimental research design (with a comparison condition); the outcomes assessed must relate to crime, delinquency, or victimization prevention, intervention, or response; the evaluation(s) must be published in a peer-reviewed publication or documented in a comprehensive evaluation report; and the year of publication must be 1980 or after.