Juvenile Justice Reform Initiatives in the States

Contents

About OJJDP

Foreword

Acknowledgments

Preface

Introduction
 Methodology, Uses, and Limitations

Chapter I: The Scope of Juvenile Violence

 Trends and Causes
 Overview

 What Caused the Increase?
 Juveniles and Murder
 Anatomy of Violence

 Juveniles and Firearms: A Closer Look
 Where Juveniles Get Guns

 Prognosis for the Future
 A Dissenting Voice

Chapter II: Issues and Trends in State Juvenile Justice Reform

 Introduction

 Prevention
 What Works?
 Recent State Action

 Curfew
 Pros and Cons
 Judicial Interpretation of the Constitutionality of Curfews
 Recent Initiatives

 Parental Responsibility Laws

 Combating Street Gangs
 The Spread of Gangs
 Gangs, Drugs, and Violence
 Approaches to Gang Control and Intervention
 State Initiatives
 Local Initiatives
 Multijurisdictional Initiatives
 Gang Prosecution

 The Movement Toward Graduated Sanctions
 Recent State Action

 Juvenile Boot Camps
 Evaluation of Juvenile Boot Camps
 Recent State Action

 Youth and Guns
 Possession, Licensing, and Transfer of Firearms
 Gun-Free Schools and Transfer Provisions

 Juvenile Proceedings and Records
 Juvenile Proceedings
 Juvenile Records
 Other Administrative Responses

 Juvenile Transfer to Criminal Court
 Types of Juvenile Transfers
 Transfer Provisions and Trends
 Offenders Judicially Waived to Criminal Court
 Impact of Waiver and Transfer

 Sentencing Authority
 Effectiveness of Expanded Sentencing Authority

Chapter III: Selected Case Studies of Juvenile Reform Initiatives

 Colorado: Review of Children's Code Brings Significant Change for
 Juvenile Justice Administration
 Introduction
 Impetus for Reform: A Summer of Violence
 Task Force for the Recodification of the Children's Code
 The Juvenile Justice Subcommittee Findings and Recommendations
 Legislative Oversight Committee Action
 Elements of Reform
 House Bill 96­1005
 Implementation and Outlook

 Connecticut: Balancing Service and Public Safety Objectives in Juvenile
 Justice System Reform
 Introduction
 Impetus for Reform
 Elements of Reform
 The Reform Strategy
 Expedited Contruction
 Transfer of Juveniles
 New Funding
 Transfer of Juvenile Justice Centers
 Implementing Reform
 A Window of Opportunity
 Sustaining Momentum

 Ohio: Sharing Responsibility for Administration of Juvenile Justice
 Introduction
 RECLAIM Ohio
 Elements of Reform
 Reform Strategy
 A Skillful, Strategic Choice for Public Peace
 A Context Conducive to Change
 Moving Toward the Future
 Amended Substitute House Bill 1

 Oregon: Making Juvenile Offenders Accountable
 Introduction
 Impetus for Reform
 Elements of Reform
 Equalizing Service Needs
 The Reform Strategy
 Implementing Reform
 Making Things Happen
 The State Ballot Initiative
 Realizing Reform Objectives

Chapter IV: Observations Concerning State Juvenile Justice Reform

 Recommendations

 Conclusion


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